94 年度私立輔仁大學法律學系研究所博士班考題
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科  目: 法學英文
年  度: 94
全卷點數: 0 點  下載考題(免費)
點閱次數: 2134
銷售明細: 7
一、Translate into Chinese(25%)
The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women seeks to do away with discrimination against women, which it defines as“any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex”that impairs the enjoyment by women of“human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field.”
In addition to the obligation to condemn discrimination against women, the States Parties undertake, inter alia,“to embody the principle of equality of men and women in their national constitutions or other appropriate legislation”and to adopt laws or other measures“including sanctions where appropriate, prohibiting all discrimination against women.”

二、Translate into Chinese(25%)
In Taiwan the‘guilt’phase of a trial is not separated from the‘penalty’phase. Evidence concerning sentencing factors is heard along with evidence concerning the factual guilt of the defendant. This places the defense in an impossible position of having to‘fight a war on two fronts’, i.e. presenting factors in mitigation while also presenting facts that show innocence.
This means that the defendant, on the one hand, has to protest his/her‘innocence’, whilst, on the other hand, needs to‘show’remorse so as to mitigate possible punishment if convicted of the offence. The defendant has to say, at the same time, I didn't do it and I am sorry that I did it. This clearly undermines the presumption of innocence. If in fact the defendant were presumed innocent at trial then there would be no discussion of sentencing factors at the trial.

三、Translate into Chinese(25%)
A peacekeeping operation, entering a country when war has just ended, must first determine the applicable law. This is a challenge when the pre-existing law needs to be brought into line with international human rights standards. A stand-by emergency criminal code and criminal procedure code, including police laws, which can be adapted for use immediately, are needed. The stand-by code provisions should be detailed enough to provide guidance to police officers, military personnel, lawyers, judges and defense lawyers. They should spell out the precise parameters, such as time limits and requirements for arrest, detention and searches, and incorporate provisions and standards that are widely accepted in different legal systems.
They would also need to take into account the fact that the needs and legal traditions of individual countries differ. To have a lawful society, the law must be viewed as legitimate by that society. After the emergency phase, the interim legal codes could be the core of the larger reform process when there is time to consider the country's legal code as a whole.

四、Translate into English(25%)
身心障礙者保護法
第 20 條 (受教育之權益)
中央與直轄市、縣(市)主管機關應根據身心障礙者人口調查之資料,規劃設立各級特殊教育學校、特殊教育班或以其他方式教育不能就讀於普通學校或普通班級之身心障礙者,以維護其受教育之權益。
前項學齡身心障礙兒童無法自行上下學者,應由政府免費提供交通工具;確有困難,無法提供者,應補助其交通費;直轄市、縣(市)主管機關經費不足者,由中央政府補助之。
第 21 條 (協助就學)
各級教育主管機關應主動協助身心障礙者就學,各級學校亦不得因其障礙類別、程度、或尚未設置特殊教育班(學校)而拒絕其入學。
第 22 條 (教育經費補助辦法)
教育主管機關應視身心障礙者之障礙等級,優惠其本人及子女受教育所需相關經費;其補助辦法由中央教育主管機關定之。
第 23 條 (各項應考條件之提供)
各級教育主管機關辦理身心障礙者教育及入學考試時,應依其障礙情況及學習需要,提供各項必需之專業人員、特殊教材與各種教育輔助器材、無障礙校園環境、點字讀物及相關教育資源,以符公平合理接受教育之機會
與應考條件。
第 24 條 (學前療育機構之設立)
各級政府應設立及獎勵民間設立學前療育機構,並獎勵幼稚園、托兒所及其他學前療育機構,辦理身心障礙幼兒學前教育、托育服務及特殊訓練。


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