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論著名稱: 世界貿易組織 SPS 協定第五條第七項之研究-爭端案例中關於暫時性措施要件與預防原則之評析(Research on the Article 5.7 of WTO-SPS Agreement-Provisional Measures and Precautionary Principle)
編著譯者: 牛惠之
出版日期: 2004.06
刊登出處: 台灣/政大法學評論第 79 期 /257-312 頁
頁  數: 34 點閱次數: 828
下載點數: 136 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 牛惠之
關 鍵 詞: 世界貿易組織食品安全檢驗與動物植物防疫檢疫措施協定暫時性措施科學證據預防原則自由貿易風險評估生物安全議定書
中文摘要: 本文旨在處理 WTO 多邊貿易體系下之 SPS 協定中,規範關於科學證據不充分風險之第五條第七項之主要相關議題。SPS 協定所規範之食品安全與動物、植物防疫檢疫措施,在制定時,需要依據科學證據或參照國際標準;但為顧及會員管理科學證據尚不充分之風險的特殊需求,SPS 協定特別透過雙軌制之制度架構,與暫時性規範之要求,使得會員得以例外的不依據科學證據之相關規定,管理進口產品所可能攜帶之潛在風險。本文茲分別就 SPS 協定關於科學證據要求之制度架構、第五條第七項制定之內涵與重要性、爭端案例為第五條第七項所確立之四項要件,以及國際環境法下之預防原則與第五條第七項之關聯性,分別進行分析與探討;並試圖藉此呈現出科學證據對於 SPS 協定維繫自由貿易之重要功能性。最後,本文並嘗試藉由分析 SPS 協定第五條第七項之構成要件,以探討這些要件對於預防原則之內容具體化所可能具有之意義。
英文關鍵詞: WTOSPS Agreement, provisional measuresscientific evidenceprecautionary principlefree traderisk assessmentBiosafety Protocol
英文摘要: It is Article 5.7 of the SPS Agreement that the present paper tends to deal with. The SPS Agreement is likely to be deemed as a trade agreement, which serves not only to protect human health, animal health and phytosanitary situation in all Members, but, most importantly, also to ensure all the measures applied would not constitute negative trade effects to global trade liberalization. Scientific evidence is applied in this agreement to bridge the relationship between these two aspects. Accordingly, the SPS Agreement is designed to offer a two-track mechanism for Members to establish measures necessary to the risk generated by the importation of foreign products not merely in the cases where a handful of scientific evidences are in place, but where relevant scientific evidence is not yet sufficient. The role of Article 5.7 is to provide a means to ensure the WTO Members can manage risk properly in the situations where the relevant scientific evidence is insufficient. Measures which are subject to Article 5.7 need to be provisional in nature and follow four requirements in adoption and implementation. To identify the importance of Article 5.7 of the SPS Agreement in regard to its very function for managing risk when scientific evidence remains unclear or insufficient, the present paper will first address the frameworks of SPS Agreement, then, move on to explore the four elements for applying Article 5.7, in addition to the connection between Article 5.7 and precautionary principle, which are debated, established and examined in three major WTO dispute settlement cases.
目  次: 壹、前言
貳、SPS 協定第五條第七項之制度架構與重要性
一、SPS 協定關於科學證據要求之原則與例外規定
二、第五條第七項之適用之制度架構與前提—國際標準與風險評估
三、第五條第七項之重要性
參、爭端案例中關於第五條第七項暫時性措施要件之釐清
一、第五條第七項之四項要件
二、科學證據之充分與不充分
三、更多必要資訊之蒐集
四、暫時性措施與合理期間之檢討
肆、第五條第七項與預防原則
一、預防原則
二、爭端案例中關於第五條第七項與預防原則之爭議
三、關於第五條第七項與預防原則之評析
伍、結論
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