法學期刊
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論著名稱: 論法國交通事故損害賠償責任的成立要件-損害、牽連關係與歸責關係之研究 ( Contributing Elements for Awarding the Remedies under the French Traffic Accident Compensation Law-A Study of Damage, Implication and Imputation)
編著譯者: 陳忠五
出版日期: 2007.06
刊登出處: 台灣/政大法學評論第 97 期 /1-78 頁
頁  數: 46 點閱次數: 1142
下載點數: 184 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 陳忠五
關 鍵 詞: 交通事故損害賠償法國一九八五年七月五日法律責任保險損害賠償責任損害牽連關係因果關係歸責關係
中文摘要: 法國一九八五年七月五日法律,是該國現行規範交通事故損害賠償問題的主要法律依據。在以「責任保險制度」為主的法制結構下,交通事故被害人是否可以依據該法律請求損害?償,必須以「交通事故損害賠償責任成立」,作為前提。
本文指出,該法律所規範的交通事故損害賠償責任,必須具備「損害」、「牽連關係」與「歸責關係」等三項責任成立要件。
所謂「損害」,是一種「主觀的損害」,從而被害人得請求?償其因交通事故所受之「全部損害」,包括「財產上損害」與「非財產上損害」。此外,損害性質為一種「人身損害」或「財物損害」,將決定應負責任者是否得以「被害人與有過錯」為由,主張減輕或免除損害賠償責任。
所謂「牽連關係」。乃動力車輛與交通事故間的聯絡關係,與民事責任普通法上的「因果關係」,乃動力車輛與損害間的聯絡關係,表面上相當近似,其實仍有所不同。在大多數交通事故,動力車輛與被害人身體或其所駕駛或搭乘的車輛間,均會發生實體碰撞。只要發生實體碰撞,動力車輛與交通事故間即有「牽連關係」,不問該動力車輛在交通事故發生時是處於行車狀態或停車狀態。只有在少數交通事故,動力車輛與被害人身體或其所駕駛或搭乘的車輛間,未發生實體碰撞。此時動力車輛必須是發生交通事故的「必要條件」,才足以成立「牽連關係」。
所謂「歸責關係」,乃交通事故與損害間的聯絡關係,與「因果關係」及「牽連關係」等,均有所不同。在交通事故是一種「單純事故」的情形,歸責關係是否存在,以損害與交通事故之間在時間上是否具有緊密性,作為判斷標準。反之,在交通事故是一種「連環事故」的情形,歸責關係是否存在的判斷,只要動力車輛與其他車輛共同牽連在單一、整體的交通事故中,「牽連關係」成立,即推定「歸責關係」存在,不問多數動力車輛中是否有部分車輛與被害人身體或其所駕駛或搭乘的車輛發生實體碰撞,也不問該車輛是否為造成被害人損害的原因。
英文關鍵詞: Traffic AccidentCompensationThe French law of July 5th 1985Liability InsuranceCompensation LiabilityDamageImplicationImputationCausation
英文摘要: The French law of July 5th 1985 is the main law to regulate its traffic accident compensation problems. Under the structure of this new legal system, liability insurance is the financial base for the compensation of the victim. As a consequence, whether the victim of traffic accident can make a claim for compensation or not depends on the existence of contributing elements for awarding remedies.
This article points out that according to the law, traffic compensation liability consists of three elements as follow: damage, implication and imputation. This article explains how these elements function in the practice.
The damage is a subjective concept, meaning that the victim can claim any and all damages which he believes he may have suffered from the traffic accident, including both the pecuniary and non pecuniary damage. Besides, whether the party at fault may counter claim the concept of contributory negligence as his defense to reduce his liabilities depends on the nature of the damage in discussion: human-related damage or property-related damage.
The implication is a connection between the vehicle and the traffic accident, which is fairly different from the seemingly similar concept of the causation between the vehicle and damage under the civil liability law. In most cases,vehicle comes into collision with the victim himself or with the vehicle that the victim drives or rides in. As long as an actual collision occurs, there is an implication, regardless of the fact that the vehicle is in action or not when the accident occurs. In some rare cases, there is still an implication although the vehicle does not come into collision with the victim himself or the vehicle. This implication is established only when the vehicle is the necessary element to the traffic accident.
The imputation is a connection between the traffic accident and the damage and should not be confused with causation or implication. In the situation of the so-called 'pure accident', there is imputation only when the timing of the damage can be closely related to traffic accident. However, in a situation of the so-called 'chain accident', imputation can be inferred from the implication despite of the fact whether there is any actual collision or whether the vehicle is the adequate cause for damage.
目  次: 緒言
壹、損害
一、主觀的損害
二、人身損害與財物損害
(一)人身損害
(二)財物損害
貳、牽連關係
一、牽連關係與因果關係的區別
(一)區別的困難
(二)區別的可能
二、牽連關係的判斷標準
(一)區別行車狀態中或停車狀態中發生交通事故
(二)區別被害人是否與動力車輛發生接觸
參、歸責關係
一、歸責關係與因果關係及牽連關係的區別
(一)歸責關係與因果關係的區別
(二)歸責關係與牽連關係的區別
二、歸責關係的判斷標準
(一)單純事故
(二)連環事故
結語
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