法學期刊
論著名稱: 論搜索時的拘留在場人及其他必要處分 ( Detaining the Person Present and Other Necessary Measures in Executing a Search)
編著譯者: 李榮耕
出版日期: 2008.10
刊登出處: 台灣/法學叢刊第 53 卷 第 4 期 /139-162 頁
頁  數: 24 點閱次數: 1493
下載點數: 96 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 李榮耕
關 鍵 詞: 刑事訴訟法第144條拘留逮捕拘提搜索搜索時必要處分
中文摘要: 我國實務及學界都已認定,刑事搜索是對於人民隱私權的侵害。不過,在執行搜索或扣押時,刑事訴訟法還進一步規定,執行機關可以要求在場人不得離去,甚或使用必要的強制處分。這一篇論文處理的,便是搜索時執行搜索官員所得使用的強制處分所涉及的各個議題。我們認為,搜索時之所以得以暫時禁止在場人員離去,主要為了避免稍後發現犯罪證據時,無法即時逮捕該在場之人。此外,這樣的處分也可以保障執法人員及在場人的安全、確保搜索得以順利進行,以及減少日後爭議。我們主張,拘留在場人的處分,其前提要件是,先前的搜索為合法。拘留及其他必要處分的是否合法,原則上,應該要以個案判斷為準。這是因為,事前的規定固然可以明確地提供執法機關行為的準則,但是卻會有無法因應各樣具體情狀的缺點。是故,所得使用的處分方式或拘留的時間等合法性的問題,也都應該要綜合當時的情形來審查。另外,當執行搜索的場合是公開場所時,執法人員則應該要有個別的相當理由,才能夠拘留在場之人。再者,目前我國刑事訴訟法關於搜索時辯護人在場的規定,不盡完備,應有加以修正的必要。實務上在解釋及適用搜索時拘留在場人的規定時,其結論大抵穩妥,我們深表贊同。不過,本文進一步提供些許學理上的補充,希望能夠使得相關判決在說理的部份更為完整。
英文關鍵詞: searchdetentionarrestarticle 144 of the Criminal Procedurenecessary enforcement while searching
英文摘要: Searches are the intrusions to people’s privacy. However, when conducting searches or seizure, the Criminal Procedure provides that the law enforcement is entitled to detain present persons, or even to use necessary force. This article is discussing related issues about the enforcement methods the police can use while condcuting searches. We argue that the purpose of the detention power is to prevent flight in the event that incriminating evidence is found. In addition, the other is to orderly complete the search, protect the law enforcement officers and present persons, and to reduce the possible dispute about the legality of the search.
We argue that the premise of the detention power is lawful searches. When examining whether the disputed detention is lawful, a court should look into the totality of the circumstances. A bright-line rule may be able to tell the police what they can do. Hoiwever, a bright-line rule also means inflexibility. Such rule cannot deal with various situations. Thus, courts should consider the totality of circumstances while examing the legality of the methods the police used or the duration of detention. The police need to have probable cause to detain the present persons when the search is conducted in public places.
The provisions, of the Criminal Procedure, governing the right to consult while the police search is imperfect. Those provisions should be amended. The conclusion about the cases involving the detention, courts reached is acceptable. The article try to provide some theoratical reasons to improve the reasoning of those cases.
目  次: 壹、前言
貳、搜索時拘留處分的理論基礎
參、比較及討論
肆、搜索時所得為之必要處分及其界線
伍、我國實務運作之分析及討論
陸、結論
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