法學期刊
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論著名稱: 德國基本法下宗教課程的規範分析 ( An Analysis of the Constitutional Mandate of Religious Courses under the German Basic Law)
編著譯者: 許育典
出版日期: 2008.09
刊登出處: 台灣/國立臺灣大學法學論叢第 37 卷 第 3 期 /245-292 頁
頁  數: 48 點閱次數: 1482
下載點數: 192 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 國立臺灣大學法律學院
關 鍵 詞: 宗教課程倫理課程宗教自由宗教中立原則宗教寬容原則宗教自我實現宗教教育宗教團體
中文摘要: 隨著德國社會的多元化與世俗化,浮現各種不同的宗教問題與衝突。尤其是兩德統一後,原東德人民並非絕大多數信仰基督教,使得這個衝突更加明顯。這樣的宗教衝突明顯反應在各邦的學校法規定,本來在德國基本法明文規定的必修宗教課程,在統一後德東的布蘭登堡邦將原來學校法的宗教課程,修改其規定成為「生活、倫理與宗教」課程,引起德國法學界、宗教學界與輿論的強烈批評。事實上,宗教課程在學校的傳授,對於現代世俗化的憲政國家而言,是應將宗教課程的規範與設計,整體有利於其作為寬容的宗教學習過程。在學校中作為學習宗教寬容的宗教課程,並非是以基督教信仰的宗教教育為其目的,也並非是以基督教教會的發展為其目的。它毋寧是以人民在世俗化的宗教自我實現為其目的。因此,現代世俗化的憲政國家,是以宗教課程在學校的傳授,作為學生學習對不同宗教信仰的其他學生,予以開放、多元接受而寬容的過程,由此致力於建立當代學校的開放、中立而寬容的宗教關係,使學生的宗教自我實現得以在學校開展與實踐,這也是當代宗教教育應有的認識。
英文關鍵詞: religious courseethic coursefreedom of religionprinciple of religious neutralityprinciple of religious tolerancereligious self-fulfillmentreligious educationreligious group
英文摘要: As the German society becomes diversified and popularized, various religious issues and conflicts are generated. The conflicts are amplified after the unification between East Germany and West Germany for most East German are not Christians. The religious conflicts apparently are reflected upon the education law among individual states. It is the constitutional mandate that religious courses are required in schools. However, Land Brandenburg, a state of former East Germany, implements the constitutional mandate and replaces the original religious courses with the course entitled “Life, Ethics and Religions”. Such a replacement provokes vehement criticisms from German legal and religious academia and the public opinions. In fact, religious courses taught at schools are a part of the process of religious learning in a modern and popularized nation of constitutionalism and the religious courses shall be designed and furnished with a view to facilitate religious tolerance. They are offered neither to promote Christianity, nor to enhance the development of the Christian Church. The religious courses are offered with a view to the religious self-fulfillment of people in a popularized society. Therefore, in modern and popularized nation of constitutionalism, religious courses are offered at schools in order to cultivate students with open and diversified religious tolerance as students will learn how to tolerate others with different religious beliefs. The religious courses will serve as a basis to establish an open, neutral and tolerated religious relationship, and enable students to develop and experience religious self-fulfillment. These goals shall be the consciousness of modern religious education.
目  次: 壹、前言
貳、德國基本法對宗教課程的規定
一、宗教課程作為正規的教學課程
二、宗教課程的實施內容
三、替代宗教課程的倫理課程
四、基本法第 141 條的例外規定
參、德國基本法下的宗教自由與宗教課程
一、德國基本法下的宗教自由保障
二、宗教自由與學生宗教自我實現
三、宗教課程作為宗教自由的制度性保障
四、宗教課程下個人與團體的宗教自由
肆、宗教課程下學生、父母、教師與宗教團體的法律地位
一、學生與父母的法律地位
二、教師的法律地位
三、宗教團體的法律地位
伍、德國宗教教育的宗教中立性與寬容
一、德國基本法下的宗教中立與寬容原則
二、宗教教育的宗教中立性原則
三、宗教教育的宗教寬容原則
陸、結論
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