法學期刊
論著名稱: 論法定財產制中剩餘財產分配數額之調整:我國民法第 1030 條之 1 第 2 項之調整規範,與瑞士、德國民法相關規範之比較研究 ( The Adjustment on the Amount of the Equalization Claim for Surplus of Matrimonial Assets under the Statutory Matrimonial Property Regime: A Comparative Study of the Art. 1030 a Paragraph 2 )
編著譯者: 林易典
出版日期: 2009.09
刊登出處: 台灣/國立臺灣大學法學論叢第 38 卷 第 3 期 /1-71 頁
頁  數: 71 點閱次數: 2949
下載點數: 284 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 國立臺灣大學法律學院
關 鍵 詞: 夫妻財產制法定財產制剩餘財產分配顯失公平酌減調整民法第 1030 條之 1
中文摘要: 我國夫妻財產制中法定財產制之規範,於 1985 年時導入民法第 1030  條之 1 第 1 項「剩餘財產分配請求權」,使得夫妻間就婚後收益之盈餘進行 平均分配成為可能,同時並於同條第 2 項導入法院有「酌減」此一數額的權限之規範,此於 2002 年再經修正成法院得「調整或免除」該分配數額。本文首先分析比較瑞士民法第 216 條及德國民法第 1381 條之規範與實務。其 次並分析我國民法第 1030 條之 1 第 2 項「調整條款」之適用原則及相關實務。觀察我國過去實務,法院往往以夫妻一方對於剩餘財產創造之貢獻程度,或考量婚姻中人格義務之違反,來決定剩餘財產之分配是否「顯失公平」,一般性地透過第 1030 條之 1 第 2 項來調整分配數額。惟本文以為,此將使同條第 1 項平衡保障夫妻雙方平等參與分配婚後財產之立法目的被掏空,或抹煞了違反婚姻人格義務之夫妻一方其過去共同協力創造婚後財產價值的勞動成果。蓋調整分配數額畢竟屬例外,法院僅應以不具正當參與分配 基礎之情事,即未就婚後財產之價值創造提供協力者,做為發動調整權限之界線,以期能還原第 1030 條之 1 第 2 項調整條款其原本應有之面貌。
英文關鍵詞: matrimonial property regimestatutory matrimonial property regimethe equalization claim for surplus of matrimonial assetsgrossly inequitablemitigationadjustmentArt. 1030 a of the Civil Code of Taiwan
英文摘要: In 1985 the equalization claim of the spouse for surplus of matrimonial assets was introduced in the statutory matrimonial property regime of Taiwan. Art. 1030 a paragraph 1 of the Civil Code of Taiwan enables each spouse to equalize the surplus of gains accrued during the matrimonial period. At the same time Art. 1030 a paragraph 2 of the Civil Code of Taiwan also grants the courts the power to mitigate the amount of equalization claim. In 2002 this provision was modified that the courts shall have the power to adjust and exempt this amount. This article uses the comparative studies on the relevant adjustment provisions in the Art. 216 of the Swiss Civil Code (ZGB) and § 1381 of the German Civil Code (BGB) and analyses their practices. Besides this article analyses the principles to use the Art. 1030 a paragraph 2 of the Civil Code of Taiwan and its practices. The courts shall examine whether the amount of equalization claim is grossly inequitable or not. But in Taiwan the practices of the courts by the examination show that the extent of the contribution of one spouse to the creation of matrimonial assets and the breach of matrimonial personal obligations were also taken into consideration in the past. These lead to a general adjustment of the amount of equalization claim. This article finds that these undermine the purpose of the legislation to protect each spouse equally while matrimonial assets are distributed. The fruit of joint contribution of one spouse to create the values of matrimonial assets in the past will also be erased while he or she breaches the matrimonial personal obligations. The adjustment on the amount of equalization claim should only be an exception. The court should initiate his adjustment power only when one spouse does not have the justified foundation of equalization claim, i.e. when he or she does not provide the assistance to create values of matrimonial assets, so that the true face of the Art. 1030 a paragraph 2 of the Civil Code of Taiwan it should have can be recovered.


目  次: 壹、法定財產制下夫妻間財產之分配及其數額之調整
一、法定財產制之分割規範其繼受上之問題
二、剩餘財產分配規範及其數額調整規範之導入
貳、瑞士及德國民法中關於剩餘財產分配請求權及分配數額酌減之規範
一、瑞士民法
(一)盈餘參與分配之立法史
(二)瑞士民法新法之規範
二、德國民法
(一)淨益共同制與淨益平衡規範之導入
(二)淨益平衡顯失公平時之抗辯權
三、瑞士、德國法制之比較
(一)瑞士法下「當事人」意思自主之「事前控制」
(二)德國法下之雙軌控制
參、我國民法關於法院調整剩餘財產分配數額之規範與實務
一、剩餘財產分配請求權之導入
(一)立法說明
(二)剩餘財產分配之正當基礎
二、酌減剩餘財產分配規範之導入:「法院」之「事後控制」
(一)授與法院酌減剩餘財產分配規範,非當事人之抗辯權
(二)從「酌減條款」到「調整條款」:亦得酌增分配數額之上下調整
(三)依法發生之法院調整權限,法院不受當事人聲明之拘束
(四)當事人間意思自主「事前控制」之排除
三、調整剩餘財產分配規範之適用原則
(一)調整未提供相當協力,而不具正當分配基礎者
(二)僅調整重大不公平之情形,而非一般性的調整
(三)其他規範已有充分窮盡評價者,不得再行調整
(四)僅考量是否有提供協力之具「給付關聯性」情事
四、我國民法第 1030 條之 1 第 2 項之法院調整規範,與德國、瑞士法制之比較
(一)規範結構
(二)調整條款之功能
肆、結論



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