法學期刊.
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論著名稱: 特留分意義之重建:一個法制史的考察(Reconstruction of the Meaning of Legally Reserved Portion:A Historical Analysis)
編著譯者: 黃詩淳
出版日期: 2010.03
刊登出處: 台灣/國立臺灣大學法學論叢第 39 卷 第 1 期 /109-160 頁
頁  數: 52 點閱次數: 3500
下載點數: 208 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 國立臺灣大學法律學院
關 鍵 詞: 繼承特留分意義家制維持家產家父長遺囑自由共同繼承人平等法制史
中文摘要: 長期以來,學界與實務界對於繼承法中特留分同時存有反對和贊成的兩方意見,而未有定論。本文認為,在討論特留分制度之存續,具體決定將其限縮抑或強化之前,必須先探究此一制度對於台灣社會的意義為何。
有論者指出特留分制度受到日本明治民法的影響,而有「家制維持」之功能。然而本文研究明治民法的繼承制度後發現,特留分的意義在單獨繼承(家督繼承)時目的在於家制維持,遺產繼承(共同、平均繼承)時則是關注近親的扶養,兩者意義大不相同。但我國向來採取平均繼承,因此日本學說所稱之「家制維持」亦即家產一體性的保存,並無法適用於採用平均繼承制度的我國。
本文分析民法成立後的司法解釋、民法修正時的討論以及法院關於遺贈及特留分扣減的判決,發現遺贈內容多優惠部分男性共同繼承人,特留分修正了此類偏頗的處分,防止被繼承人恣意和濫權,在結果上保障了男女(繼承人的)間的平等,因此本文認為我國特留分主要意義為「繼承人間的平等維持」。

英文關鍵詞: successioninheritance legally reserved portion/compulsoryportion meaning the preservation of “jia” (“ie”) family property patriarchy testamentary freedom joint heirs equality legal history
英文摘要: There are pros and cons toward legally reserved portion in legal studies. This article contends that before we decide to enhance or limit legally reserved portion, it is necessary to understand precisely its meaning and function in our society.
Some research points out that one meaning of legally reserved portion is the preservation of “jia” because of the influence of Meiji Civil Code. However, through the study of succession in Meiji Civil Code, we could find that legally reserved portion in katoku succession (one-child succession) is a device to keep “jia” (“ie” in Japanese) in a complete form, while as in estate succession (joint and equal succession) legally reserved portion is a support for close relatives. That is, the meaning of legally reserved portion in one-child succession is different from that in joint and equal succession. In fact, the one-child succession does not exist either in traditional Chinese law or current Taiwanese law, in which joint and equal succession happens after death. Therefore, preservation of “jia”, that is, to keep the family’s property in a whole unit, may not be the meaning of legally reserved portion in Taiwan.
By analyzing judicial interpretations, the discussion on the revision of Civil Code, and cases regarding testamentary gifts and legally reserved portion, it is found that most testamentary beneficiaries are male joint heirs. Legally reserved portion modifies this kind of unfair gifts and protects heirs from reckless and biased decision of the decedents. This function to protect equality among joint heirs in result guarantees equality among male and female heirs. Therefore, this article argues that the meaning of legally reserved portion should lie on the protection of equality among heirs in Taiwan.

目  次: 壹、前言
貳、明治民法的特留分意義
一、舊民法之特留分
二、明治民法之特留分
三、小結
參、戰後日本特留分意義之轉變
一、戰後的修法
二、農業繼承問題與通說:家族主義的特留分
三、有力說:平等主義的特留分
肆、接觸特留分制度前的社會背景
一、漢人社會的傳統繼承制度
二、日治時期之繼承制度
伍、我國民法的特留分意義
一、中華民國民法之特留分沿革
二、現行法的特留分意義
陸、結論
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