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論著名稱: 刑事鑑定實務與結果評價問題-以改造槍枝殺傷力鑑定證據之調查與判斷為例(The Evaluation of Criminal Forensic Evidence Practice and Result - The Investigation and Judgement of Wounding Capability Test Report of Converted Replica Guns as an Example)
編著譯者: 施俊堯徐健民
出版日期: 2010.06
刊登出處: 台灣/臺北大學法學論叢第 74 期 /197-279 頁
頁  數: 83 點閱次數: 5020
下載點數: 332 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 國立臺北大學法律學院 授權者指定不分配權利金給作者)
關 鍵 詞: 鑑定證據證據調查判斷證據能力證據證明力普遍接受原則改造槍枝動能殺傷力性能檢驗法實際試射法
中文摘要: 運用刑事鑑定證據認定犯罪事實,已經是未來發展趨勢。法院在運用鑑定證據作為判斷事實之證據以前,必須先經過調查與判斷程序。調查與判斷內容包括有無證據能力以及是否可信之證明力。鑑定證據之證據能力有明文規定,但證據證明力判斷僅有經驗與論理法則之規定。實務上迄今對於鑑定證據證明力之調查判斷仍缺乏明確標準,直到 2008 年才有四件最高法院判決記載有「普遍接受原則」之判斷標準。將玩具槍改造成具有殺傷力是臺灣特殊的犯罪現象,有無殺傷力之鑑定成為認定犯罪之重要證據。專責此項鑑定之鑑定機關內政部警政署刑事警察局以性能檢驗法鑑定改造槍枝殺傷力,但是被告常爭執此種鑑定方法而要求實際試射法鑑定,惟鑑定機關則以有可能爆炸危險而拒絕。本文以改造槍枝殺傷力鑑定之判決為例,分析法院對於鑑定證據之調查判斷問題,並且就此問題對參與槍彈鑑定講習之法官作講習前與後之問卷研究統計分析。結論為鑑定人與法院對鑑定方法之認知有差異、法院審查鑑定需要有明確判斷標準。並建議法院與鑑定機關需要溝通意見、鑑定書製作需考慮法院需求,且提昇刑事鑑定報告品質協助法院正確認定事實。

英文關鍵詞: Forensic EvidenceInvestigation and evaluation of EvidenceAdmissibility of EvidenceReliability of EvidenceRule of General AcceptanceConverted replica gunkinetic energyfunction teststest firing
英文摘要: Using forensic science evidence to assist judicial fact-finding processes will be beneficial for future advances. Before using forensic evidence to find facts, the Court must go through a process of investigation and evaluation. The contents of investigating and evaluating include the admissibility and reliability of the forensic science evidence.
The criminal procedure law provides clear guidance on how to evaluate the admissibility of evidence. However, for evaluating the evidences’ reliability, the criminal procedure law states simply that empirical and logics rule. In Taiwan, trial practices still lack a clear standard that can evaluate the reliability of evidence. Up until 2008, in the decisions of the Taiwan Supreme Court there were only four cases that refer to the Rule of General Acceptance. Conversion of replica guns into lethal weapons is one of the serious violence crimes in Taiwan. In such a case, the forensic test report concerning wounding capability is crucial evidence that effects declaration of guilty or not guilty. The forensic science centre of Criminal Investigation Bureau ( CIB ) is assigned to examine the wounding capability of the converted replica gun and to do so they use the function test to inspect the converted gun. Still the defendant usually disagrees with the function test and asks for a test fire to test the converted gun. However, firearms examiners are reluctant to conduct further analysis as they fear the converted replica gun may explode during a test fire.
This study used Court verdicts that concern wounding capability tests as examples to analyze problems surrounding investigation and judgment of forensic evidence by the Court. The questionnaire research method is adopted to analyze differences between judges before they attend a firearms identification lecture and post firearms identification lecture. The conclusions and suggestions are as follows: 1. The cognition examine method between Court and forensic examiners are different. 2. When the Court investigates forensic evidence, the Court needs to have clear standards for judgment. 3. The Court and forensic examiner need to communicate their opinions to one another. 4. The Forensic examiner’s reports must consider the needs of the Court and the quality of the forensic science report must be improved in order to assure accuracy when fact-finding.
目  次: 壹、前言
一、緣起目的
二、研究方法
貳、刑事鑑定證據調查判斷需求與目的
一、鑑定證據調查判斷需求
二、鑑定證據調查判斷目的
參、刑事鑑定證據調查判斷之實務發展
一、審查鑑定證據發展經過
二、美國法院審查鑑定證據
肆、刑事鑑定證據調查方法與判斷準則
一、鑑定證據調查判斷準則
二、實務鑑定證據能力標準
伍、以改造槍枝殺傷力鑑定為例之理由
一、改造槍枝殺傷力案數量多
二、刑罰重殺傷力無明文規定
三、實務與學術資料不易蒐集
四、特定機關鑑定方法有爭執
五、報告問題與調查判斷困難
陸、改造槍枝殺傷力之鑑定方法與問題
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