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論著名稱: 軍費生違反義務與應遵行事項時之賠償責任-最高行政法院 100 年度判字第 998 號判決探討(The civil liability of the military-sponsored students when disobeying obligations-A discussion on the Supreme Administrative Court Judgement of precedent NO. 998, 2011)
編著譯者: 劉邦繡
出版日期: 2012.02
刊登出處: 台灣/軍法專刊第 58 卷 第 1 期 /71-101 頁
頁  數: 31 點閱次數: 2603
下載點數: 124 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 軍法專刊社 授權者指定不分配權利金給作者)
關 鍵 詞: 軍費生軍事學校賠償辦法行政契約行政訴訟行政執行
中文摘要: 國防部各軍事學校設立之宗旨,乃係以培養訓練國軍各軍種之幹部為目的,國防部為解決各軍種軍士官缺額補充,以公費教育方式,鼓勵各個學齡之學生接受軍事教育,進而成為各軍種幹部來源,及為確保享受公費待遇之學生於畢業後,照約接受分發各部隊及軍事機關學校完成服務,以解決軍中幹部來源之問題,此為達成培養國軍幹部目的所必要,而軍事教育、服役之性質,俱屬公法上之權利義務,無從作為私法契約之標
的,則軍費生與軍校間契約之內容,乃為公法上之目的而成立行政契約。當軍費生遭退學、開除學籍或提早退伍時,乃屬違反該行政契約,應如何追償或強制執行軍費生違反義務與應遵行事項時之賠償責任發生時,一直以來都是軍事學校或國軍各機關、部隊的燙手山芋。當然請求軍費生賠償之程序,固得先發函通知該軍費生催繳以促其自動履行,嗣該軍費生不自動履賠償責任時,究應以何法律程序追償?本文論述認為基於軍事學校與軍費生間乃行政契約關係所肇生之金錢賠償請求,即不得以行政處分方式實現之,此請求既基於公法上行政契約原因所發生財產上之給付,即應依行政訴訟程序提起給付訴訟辦理追償,嗣取得行政法院判決確定取得執行名義後,再依行政訴訟法第 305 條、第 306 條規定,聲請高等行政法院強制執行,由高等行政法院設執行處,或囑託普通法院民事執行處或行政機關代為執行,尚不得逕行移送行政執行處執行。如依本文從行政法理與司法實務見解之法律程序辦理,將有助於軍事學校或部隊、機關在積極追償軍費生違反義務或應遵行事項時之賠款,有明確之作業遵循規範,避免違失。
英文關鍵詞: MOD-sponsored student, military school, regulation of compensation, administrative contract, administrative suit, administrative enforcement
英文摘要: The MOD sponsors military education with establishing military schools and recruiting students so that the military manpower would be sufficient in the long run, which is necessary to build the national defense power. While issues of military education and service are of public, agreements between military schools and MODsponsored students are not private contracts. When the MOD-sponsored students are dropped out, expelled or early-discharged, which conflicts with the signed administrative contract, how to recover the loss becomes a question. Although the authority might request the student to compensate for the loss, the authority is not allowed to enforce the loss by an administrative deposition due to the administrative contract. Hence, the only way to recover the loss is to file an administrative suit. After obtaining the enforcement writ, the authority then could apply for the High Administrative Court to enforce the writ, according to Article 305, 306 of the Administrative Procedure Code, and the enforcement unit of High Administrative Court has to enforce the writ by itself, or request the enforcement unit of the district court or the Administrative Enforcement Agency to enforce the writ. The Administrative Enforcement Agency itself is not entitled to enforce this compensation.
目  次: 壹、系爭判決要旨及問題
一、判決事實
二、判決理由
三、問題與疑義
貳、軍費生與軍校之法律關係
一、行政契約關係之確立
二、行政契約成立之內容
參、軍費生應負賠償責任之依據及內容
肆、請求軍費生賠償之程序
一、通知該軍費生自動履行
二、依行政訴訟法提起公法上給付訴訟
伍、請求軍費生賠償之時效
陸、強制執行軍費生賠償義務之程序─代結論
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