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論著名稱: 身分法益侵害之損害賠償的實務發展及其檢討(Compensation of Damages on Status: Development in Praxis and Review)
編著譯者: 葉啟洲
出版日期: 2012.08
刊登出處: 台灣/政大法學評論第 128 期 /1-78 頁
頁  數: 49 點閱次數: 1086
下載點數: 196 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 葉啟洲
關 鍵 詞: 身分法益損害賠償慰撫金通姦親權訴訟詐欺因果關係法益競合
中文摘要: 我國民法承襲德國民法個人主義的色彩,對於權益的保護,偏重在個人所享有的財產及人格權益。但整體社會關係的脈絡,並非僅由個人組成,而同時係由最小單元的社會-即家庭-所組成,而現代核心家庭則綜合交錯著夫妻關係、父母子女關係及兄弟姊妹關係。此等身分關係,在身分法的領域中固然是規範的重心;但在侵權行為法中,卻向來不是權益保障的焦點。
一九九九年民法債編修正時,增訂第一九五條第三項,規定於特定身分法益受侵害而情節重大時,賦予被害人請求慰撫金的權利,其影響層面除該條本身承認的身分法益保護之外,同時也直接促成學界對於原來民法第一九二條第二項以及第一九四條的重新定位。目前民法第一九五條第三項目前在實務上已被極頻繁地適用。然此一「身分法益」之內容如何?侵害形態如何界定?與原來民法第一九二條第二項及第一九四條之適用關係與界限為何?身分法益侵害後的損害賠償內容如何?此等問題影響我國侵權行為法的發展方向甚鉅。其背後的影響,不僅僅是「身分權」或「身分法益」受侵害時之慰撫金請求權的明文依據而已,更意味著以個人主義為基礎的侵權行為法,已因應社會現實及其需要,而向部分家庭關係擴張。本文從民法第一九五條第三項的立法背景與實務發展出發,進而探討其發展上之妥當性與未來可能的解釋、發展方向。

英文關鍵詞: Right to Family Life, StatusCompensation of Non-property DamagesAdulteryRights of ParentsMisuse of LitigationCausationCongruence of Legal Rights
英文摘要: Our Civil Code adopted the idea of "individualism" from German civil law. It highlights the protection of personal property and personality. The sequence of the society however is formed not only by the "individual", but also by "family". Furthermore, each and every family is a correlation between spouses, parents and children, or siblings. This status is the core concept in the domain of status law; conversely, the protection of this status had never been underlined in tort law.
The tort law in the Civil Code was amended in 1999. The new provision of Article 195 Paragraph 3 not only acknowledges the protection of explicit status based on family relationship, but also materializes the academic orientation of the Civil Code Article 192 Paragraph 2 and Article 194. At present Article 195 Paragraph 3 of the Civil Code has been broadly applied. Nevertheless, what is the content of the status based on the relationship to one's father, mother, sons, daughters, or spouse? How to define the scope of impairment? How to characterize the context to Article 192 Paragraph 2 and Article 194? What are the contents of the compensation? All the above questions will significantly influence our tort law. The influence is profound not merely on the statutory basis of the non-property damage of status. It also implies that the basis of tort liability has expanded from "individual" to "family" in part. This study initiates the background and practice on Article 195 Section 3 of the Civil Code and then argues its possibility and validity in future prospect.

目  次: 壹、問題之提出
貳、身分法益之概念界定
  一、身分法益之意義
  二、民法第一九二條及第一九四條之定位
參、身分法益侵害之案例類型分析
  一、民法債編修正前之案例類型
  (一)誘姦他人未成年子女
  (二)通姦
  (三)未成年子女一眼失明案
  (四)嬰兒遺失案
  (五)訴訟詐欺以獲得離婚判決
  二、民法債編修正後之案例類型
  (一)民法第一九五條第三項增訂理由
  (二)民法第一九五條第三項之案例類型簡介
  (三)爭議侵害形態的檢討
  (四)實務見解之發展趨勢
肆、請求權基礎及賠償範圍之再檢討
  一、請求權基礎
  (一)理論研討
  (二)請求權基礎的實務發展
  二、身分法益侵害之損害賠償範圍
  (一)非財產上損害賠償
  (二)財產上損害賠償
  三、間接侵害類型中身分法益侵害與人格法益侵害之競合問題
伍、結論
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