法學期刊
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論著名稱: 從許可監護人代為不動產處分評析我國成年監護制度之實務(Guardianship for Adults in Taiwan: from the Cases on Disposition of Ward’s Real Property in Practice)
編著譯者: 黃詩淳
出版日期: 2013.07
刊登出處: 台灣/東吳法律學報第 25 卷 第 1 期 /75-106 頁
頁  數: 32 點閱次數: 1938
下載點數: 128 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 黃詩淳
關 鍵 詞: 成年監護不動產處分受監護宣告人之利益親屬監護監護之社會化家族連帶扶養遺產分割
中文摘要: 民法第 1113 條準用第 1101 條第 2  項所規定監護人應經法院許可之行為,具有相當之實務重要性。本文首先介紹日本民法第 859  條之 3  監護人代為處分「居住用不動產」須經裁判所許可之立法背景以及制度運用現況。其次則探討我國新舊法之差異,釐清新法適用之對象範圍,並以類型化之方法分析「許可監護人代理受監護宣告人處分不動產」之裁定,發現法院在不同事件採用了相異的三種判斷標準:一、籌措受監護宣告人的生活費;二、改善護養療治環境;三、增加經濟上的利益,以決定是否符合「受監護宣告人之利益」。雖法院多以客觀的利益為基準,然而在某些類型事件卻不免受到親屬意願之左右,此現象可說明我國現行監護實務仍有親屬監護之特質。
英文關鍵詞: Guardianshipdisposition of real propertybest interest of ward, family guardianshipsocialization of guardianshipfamily solidaritysupport,division of inherited property
英文摘要: Article 1113 of Taiwan’s Civil Code on the guardianship over ward requests the guardian to acquire court’s permission on disposition of the ward’s real property. Since averagely 400 cases are brought to the court per year, this rule is undoubtedly important in practice. This study firstly introduces the similar provision on disposition of real estate “used for ward's residence” in Japanese law which is considered as the origin of Taiwan’s rule. Secondly, this research analyzes the difference between Taiwan’s old and new rules in order to clarify the definition of “disposition.” Moreover, through examining related legal cases, it is found that courts adopt three various standards to explain “the best interest of the ward”, namely, the necessity of obtaining funds for living expenses for the ward, the improvement in condition of medical treatment or nursing, and lastly, the possibility of increasing economic profit. Although most courts make decision on the objective basis mentioned above, in certain type cases, such as division of inherited property, courts sometimes consider the opinions of the ward’s family as more important than personal and objective interest of the ward. In conclusion, this study shows that the guardianship in Taiwan is still very family-oriented and less socialized as expected in spite of the amendment of Civil Code in 2008.
目  次: 壹、新制度之現況與問題提起
貳、日本法之變遷與概況
一、制度沿革
二、立法目的
三、處分客體:居住用不動產
四、處分行為之種類、判斷標準與違反效果
五、聲請許可之程序與數量
參、我國許可監護人代為處分不動產的概要
一、制度沿革
二、須得許可之處分行為
(一)舊法時代的討論
(二)修正後的解釋
三、違反效果
四、法院許可與否之基準
肆、我國許可事件之類型化
一、出售不動產
(一)為籌措生活費或護養療治之費用
(二)換購
二、參與都更新建
三、遺產分割
(一)法定應繼分基準說
(二)未滿法定應繼分額時的正當化事由
四、贈與
五、小結:法院對代為處分的判斷基準彙整
伍、我國法院處理監護實務之特徵與建議
一、第 1101 條第 2 項之由來與立法目的
二、法院基本上採客觀「最佳利益原則」為判斷基準
三、親屬意願與客觀經濟利益之折衝
四、選定親屬為監護人之現象
五、監護人之勞務難以獲得報酬評價
六、小結:親屬監護之特徵
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