法學期刊
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論著名稱: 重新建構刑法上保證人地位的法理基礎(Reconstructing Legal Grounds of Guarantor’s Obligations)
編著譯者: 周漾沂
出版日期: 2014.03
刊登出處: 台灣/國立臺灣大學法學論叢第 43 卷 第 1 期 /209-269 頁
頁  數: 61 點閱次數: 4440
下載點數: 244 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 國立臺灣大學法律學院
關 鍵 詞: 不作為犯保證人地位作為義務不法概念社會連帶性
中文摘要: 本文的目的,在於重新建構保證人地位的法理基礎,並據此得出具有刑法上適格的保證人地位事由。以往學說所採取的支配、信賴或期待概念,都是屬於形成保證人地位之規範性關係的反射結果,並無法提供具有建構作用的判準。相對於此,本文從刑法義務型態出發,區分消極義務(不侵害義務)/積極義務(協助義務),並認為保證人地位的問題,即是刑法應在何種範圍上承認積極義務的問題。刑法承認廣泛性消極義務,並沒有什麼疑問;一個以個人自由與權利為核心的實質不法概念,所要求的不外乎禁止侵害他人。然而積極義務,原則上難以整合在上述法概念之中,因為,強制公民承擔他人風險之社會連帶性,其結果是對於個人自由與權利的侵害。在此理解下,本文提出「自由法秩序之補充性扶助體制」以及「風險管轄合意移轉」兩個和實質不法概念有相容性的保證人地位。前者的作用,在於防止個人因自我負責能力欠缺所可能導致的生存機會喪失;後者則是承認個人之間得透過自由意願建立局部風險連帶性,用以實現個人所欲之社會交往活動。這兩種保證人地位,不但不會侵害個人自由與權利,反而對於其實現具有護衛性作用。至於危險控管型的保證人地位,則由於行為人所違反者係消極義務,而落入作為犯的範疇之中,因此不具有保證人地位適格。
英文關鍵詞: criminal offence committed by omissionguarantor's positionobligation of actioncriminal wrongsolidarity
英文摘要: The purpose of this study was to rebuild the legal ground for guarantor's position. Although there were theories about the ground for guarantor's position, none of them provided normative criteria. The ground for guarantor's position should be the extent to which the criminal law can order a person to help the others. Such an order of criminal law is referred as “positive obligation” in this study. The wrong in criminal law implies an offense to personal freedom. Thus, the criminal law would include what is referred in this study as the “negative obligation” that requires a person not to offense the others. However, the same logic does not apply to the case of “positive obligation”, because the solidarity, which forces citizens to undertake the risks of others, by itself is an infringement to personal freedom. The author argues that there are only two legitimate grounds for guarantor's position. The first ground is the supporting system that saves a person without capacity of autonomy from losing the chance to live. The second ground is the agreement on the transfer of the duty to control risks. These two grounds would not infringe freedom; furthermore, they can ensure the premise of freedom.
目  次: 壹、問題提出
貳、對既有保證人地位理論的檢視
一、支配理論(Herrschaftstheorie)
二、信賴原則(Vertrauensprinzip)
三、行為期待(Verhaltenserwartung)
參、重構保證人地位的法理基礎
一、以刑法義務型態作為論述起點
二、以實質不法概念確定刑法義務型態
三、立基於自由法概念的保證人地位設定
肆、結論
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