法學期刊.
  • 社群分享
論著名稱: 論幫助行為之因果關係(The Causal Relationship of Accomplice)
編著譯者: 蔡聖偉
出版日期: 2013.09
刊登出處: 台灣/政大法學評論第 134 期 /173-227 頁
頁  數: 34 點閱次數: 2092
下載點數: 136 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 蔡聖偉
關 鍵 詞: 幫助犯因果關係風險升高理論條件理論合法則之條件理論犯罪參與關係的脫離
中文摘要: 因果關係是所有犯罪在結果歸責上的基本前提,唯有透過因果關係及結果歸責的要求,才能正當化既遂犯的處罰。現行法雖然將犯罪的參與角色分成正犯與共犯,但因果要求不應隨著形式上的名稱區分而有所讓步。基此,幫助犯的成立仍應以幫助行為和主行為之間存有因果關係為要件。
必須與幫助行為有所關聯的結果(幫助結果),就是經由正犯所引發的不法事實。這個不法事實可分成兩部分,一是正犯著手實行的行為,二是正犯既遂的不法結果,幫助行為不但必須和正犯的實行行為有所關聯,並且也必須促成正犯的既遂,如此才能成立既遂的幫助犯。欠缺因果關聯時,也會隨著所涉及之部分的不同,而異其責任:一、倘若幫助行為與主行為的實行無關,便屬現行法所不處罰的「未遂幫助」;二、倘若幫助行為有持續作用到正犯著手實行的階段,但對於最終的既遂結果並無貢獻,則成立「幫助未遂」。
至於因果關聯的判準,則應採取合法則的條件理論:當幫助行為在實際發生的事件歷程中係屬必要成分(亦即,若將該行為從整體過程中刪除,這個過程的說明就會變得不合理)時,便可肯定條件因果關係的存在。要特別注意的是,儘管物理幫助多半含有心理(精神)幫助的成分,但並非所有無效的物理幫助都必然可以轉而透過心理幫助成立幫助犯。即便是在心理幫助的類型,幫助行為與主行為之間也必須存有因果關聯才能成立幫助既遂犯,因果要求並不會隨著幫助形式的不同而有差異。
英文關鍵詞: Aiding and Abetting (Beihilfe)Causation (Kausalitat)Conditio Sine Qua Non-test (Aquivalenztheorie)
英文摘要: Causation is a prerequisite of punishment. Although the parties to a crime can be divided into the principal and the accomplice, the requirement of causation should not be varied. Therefore, to constitute an accomplice, there must be a causal relationship between the assistance of the accomplice and the actus reus.
The result that needed to be related with assistance of the accomplice is the illegitimate fact caused by the principal. The illegitimate fact can be divided into two parts, one is actus reus and the other is the result. The assistance needed to be related with these two parts. As a result, in order to be punished as an accomplice, there must be a causal relationship between the assistance of the accomplice and principal's actus reus, and the assistance must further the completion of the crime. When there is no causation, the liability will be different depending on the situation. If the assistance is unrelated to the actus reus, the assistance will not be punished. On the other hand, if the assistance does further the principal's actus reus, but makes no contribution to the final result, the person providing the assistance should be punished as an accomplice to an attempted crime.
The causation should be measured by the "condition theory". When the assistance is a necessary component in the course of an event (that is, if the act is deleted from the overall process, the description of the process will become unreasonable), the conduct is the cause of the result. However, even though most physical aids contain mental encouragement, not every ineffective physical aid can constitute an act of an accomplice through mental encouragement. Even in the situation of mental encouragement, a causal relationship between the encouragement and the actus reus is required as well; the requirement of causation will not be different depending on the form of assistance.
目  次: 壹、前言
貳、學說見解
一、肯定條件因果關係的立場
二、修正的立場
三、否定任何因果要求的立場
參、是否應要求一定的因果關聯性?
一、從學說主張觀察
二、從幫助犯的處罰根據觀察
三、從犯罪參與關係脫離的角度觀察
肆、何種幫助結果:主行為的實行或既遂?
伍、何種判準:條件公式或促進模式?
陸、心理性的因果關係
柒、結語
相關法條:
相關判解:
相關函釋:
    相關論著:
    返回功能列