法學期刊
論著名稱: 拘提及緊急搜索(Arrest and Search in Exigent Circumstances)
編著譯者: 李榮耕
出版日期: 2014.04
刊登出處: 台灣/東海大學法學研究第 42 期 /109-160 頁
頁  數: 29 點閱次數: 2505
下載點數: 116 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 李榮耕
關 鍵 詞: 拘提搜索緊急搜索無令狀搜索第三人拘票搜索票相當理由
中文摘要: 我國刑訴法規定,偵查官員得為執行拘提之目的而無令狀地進入到私人處所中。然而,無論進入私人住居所的目的為何,一旦警察官員進入其中,就已經構成搜索。拘提影響的是人民的人身自由,搜索涉及的是相對人的隱私權益。何以為了拘提特定人就可以進入到私人處所,便為值得深入探究的議題。在分析討論美國聯邦最高法院的 Steagald 案及 Payton 案後,本文認為 Payton 案無論是在隱私保障或有效訴追犯罪上,可能有其瑕疵,並不可採。為了有效保護被拘提人及第三人的隱私權益,以及提供檢警機關較為明確的執法準則,應認為,只要是進入到私人住所中,無論其係被拘提人或第三人所有,除非有緊急情狀或獲得有效同意,否則,都應該要取得法官所核發的搜索票,方得為之。也因此,我國刑事訴訟法第 131 條第 1 項第 1 款中的拘提,應係指第 88 條之 1 的緊急搜索,而不包括依拘票所進行的拘提。
英文關鍵詞: Arrestsearchsearch in exigent circumstanceswarrantless searchthird partysearch warrantarrest warrantprobable cause
英文摘要: The Code of Criminal Procedure provides that in order to arrest a suspect the law enforcement may warrantlessly enter a private house. However, entry of a person's house constitutes a search no matter what purpose the police work for. Arrest invades people's personal freedom while searches intrude their privacy rights. Why may the police search a person's house in order to conduct an arrest? That is a material question which should be worked on.
The Code of Criminal Procedure provides that the law enforcement may enter a private house without a warrant in order to conduct an arrest. However, entry of a private house constitutes a search no mater what purpose the police work for. An arrest involves personal freedom while a search concerns privacy rights. Why is it permissible for the police to search a person's house in order to couduct an arrest? After analyzing the Payton and Steagald cases, this article argues that Payton ignored both the importance of privacy protection and the efficiency of criminal investigation. In order to properly protect people's privacy rights and provide the law enforcement with a bright line, this article argues that the police should obtain a search warrant before entering a private house no mater who that house belongs to unless exigent circumstances exists or valid consents are given. Therefore, item 1 of section 1 of article ;131 should only apply to the arrest which is conducted according to Article 88-1.
目  次: 壹、前言
貳、搜索與拘提的權利侵害及相當理由
參、為執行拘票所為之無令狀搜索
一、進入第三人處所
二、進入犯罪嫌疑人之處所
三、第三人之處所或犯罪嫌疑人之處所的判斷
四、「有理由可信」的標準
肆、分析及討論
一、以拘捕為目的所進行的緊急搜索
二、進入到第三人處所中進行拘提
三、進入到應受拘提人處所中進行拘提
四、我國刑訴法的解釋及適用
伍、結論
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