法學期刊.
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論著名稱: 日本法上賄賂罪職務行為之研究(A Research on Duty Behavior of Crime of Bribery in the Criminal Law of Japan)
編著譯者: 李錫棟
出版日期: 2011.07
刊登出處: 台灣/法學叢刊第 56 卷 第 3 期 /17-64 頁
頁  數: 47 點閱次數: 747
下載點數: 188 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 李錫棟
關 鍵 詞: 賄賂職務行為公務員收賄瀆職職務
中文摘要: 刑法賄賂罪中所稱「職務上之行為」,其範圍如何?我國刑事司法並未形成穩定的見解,而在適用上亦輒生疑義。日本刑法賄賂罪中一樣有「關於職務」範圍之問題,本文評介日本刑事司法判例對該國刑法賄賂罪所謂「關於職務」範圍之認定意見及其學說上之討論,以供司法實務及比較法研究之參考。
日本判例及多數說認為賄賂罪所保護之法益包括「一般國民對於職務公正之信賴」。由於這樣的想法可能會導致刑法規範的主觀化,而用以度量犯罪之法益侵害不應走向主觀化,而應致力於使其客觀化才是。本文認為賄賂行為之所以要被處罰的理由是因為以金錢物品收買職務之執行對國民所託付之「公正的執行職務」會造成侵害或製造危險。基此,「執行職務的公正」才是賄賂罪所要保護的法益,而無須將「社會的信賴」當做賄賂罪保護的法益,只要將其當作保持職務公正執行的反射利益即可,如此才能使所要保護的法益盡量客觀化。
基於這樣的立場,本文認為公務員之行為如果是基於法令所規定之本來的職務,而且是其具體擔負之職務,該行為當然具有職務的性質,自不待言。如果是法令上所規定之本來職務,但非其具體擔負之職務,則只要對該本來職務有具體影響之可能即可認為具有職務的性質。同樣的道理,公務員之行為如果是法令上所規定之本來職務權限以外之行為,則當該公務員所實施之行為在實質上有利用其本來職務之地位,在形式上具有公務之性質,且該行為又對本來職務執行之公正具有實質的影響力時,即可認為是「與本來職務有密切關係之行為」而具有職務的性質。總之,對職務上之行為授受賄賂所構成之賄賂罪,必須是該公務員對該職務有具體影響或有具體影響之可能者始可。
英文關鍵詞: briberyduty behaviorpublic officialbribe-takingjobberyduty
英文摘要: There are some problems about how to judge the range of “duty behavior” in Taiwan, and so is Japan. This article was written to talk about how Japanese courts and law scholars judge the range, and to be used for reference documents of law researches and judgment.
Japanese legal precedents and most of the law scholars consider that the law benefit which crime of bribery protect is the faith in doing duty behavior equitably. However, in the my opinion, the reason for briberies should be punished is that currying favor with public official to do duty behavior by money or things will cause not to do duty behavior equitably or this kind of risk. As a result, it is righteous duty behavior that the benefit of law which crime of bribery should protect, but the faith in duty behavior.
For this reason, I have the idea that if a public official’s action belongs to the duty in law, it can be considered as having the quality of duty behavior. On the other hand, doing action under the public official’s identity, having the quality of public affair in form, and has the influence of the fairness of the duty behavior can be considered as the behavior which has close relation with his or her own duty then it can be regarded as the duty behavior in crime of bribery, even the public official’s action is out of the duty in law. In short, the duty behavior of crime of bribery must has the condition of the public official has influence of the duty or the possibility of influence.
目  次: 壹、日本賄賂罪之規範及其保護之法益
貳、職務行為之意義及其範圍
參、與職務有密切關聯性之判斷標準
肆、應用於我國法之可能性
伍、結論
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