法學期刊.
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論著名稱: 要保人告知義務法制之改革:消費者保護、對價平衡與最大善意原則之交錯與位移(Reform of Regulation on the Duty of Disclosure in Insurance Law)
編著譯者: 葉啟洲
出版日期: 2014.03
刊登出處: 台灣/政大法學評論第 136 期 /129-207 頁
頁  數: 52 點閱次數: 901
下載點數: 208 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 葉啟洲
關 鍵 詞: 告知義務最大善意原則對價平衡原則消費者保護眼耳原則保險人說明義務詐欺保單價值準備金
中文摘要: 保險法第六十四條關於要保人告知義務之規定,距離前次修正已逾二十年。此二十年間相關爭議案例不但未曾減少,其爭議類型甚至有益加多元的趨勢。現行規範以及相關判例是否已適當地提供解決的方法,卻有疑問。近年德國新保險契約法甫完成百年來的最大幅度修正,該國新法對於要保人告知義務的規定,基於強化保護消費者的目的而採取全新的規範方式,特別是新法限縮保險人的解除權的適用,引進終止權及契約關係調整權,減少要保人因此完全喪失保險保護的可能性,同時兼顧對價平衡原則的維持。另一方面,對於惡意的要保人,也盡可能杜絕其濫用保險制度的機會,以維護危險共同體的利益。此等修正牽涉到最大善意原則、對價平衡原則以及消費者保護等三大理論基礎對於要保人告知義務法制的交錯影響,對於我國法在實務上已經出現的諸多問題,或可作為借鏡。本文擬從我國實務上已經產生的問題出發,再參考德國新法的精神,擷取適合我國的規範,進而對我國法未來的發展提出具體的修正建議。
英文關鍵詞: Duty of DisclosureUtmost Good FaithPrinciple of EquivalenceConsumer rotectionEye-Ear-PrincipleThe Insurer's Duty to InformFraudulencePolicy Value Reserve
英文摘要: The last amendation of Article 64 of the Insurance Act took place 20 years ago. In the ensuing two decades, the disputes of disclosure duty have not been reduced but have increased; furthermore, the controversial issues have become diverse and complex. It is doubtful that the disputes can be properly solved by the on-going regulations and precedents.
After nearly a hundred years, the German Insurance Act has been completely revised recently. The German Insurance Contract Act, with its new provisions about the obligation of policyholders of disclosure, has adopted the idea of consumer protection; especially the insurer's right to rescind the contract is kept within certain limits and to enact the right of termination and modification of the contract. Thus, the insured has less possibility of forfeiting the insurance coverage and keep "principle of equivalence" at the same time.
On the other hand, the new act prevents the malicious policyholder from abusing the insurance system as much as possible and to maintain the interests of a hazard group. The amendment of the German Insurance Contract Act involves theories of the utmost good faith, and the principles of equivalence and consumer protection. It can serve as a model for practical disputes in Taiwan.
The essay begins by probing the practical disputes on incorrect disclosure in Taiwan and observes the intention of the German Insurance Act to acquire applicable provisions for Taiwan. In its conclusion, it provides the overall amendments and suggestions for the further development of the insurance law in Taiwan.
目  次: 壹、問題之提出
貳、臺灣現行法制及其困境
一、現行告知義務規範概述
(一)基本規定與理論基礎
(二)人壽保險之特別規定
(三)三項理論基礎間的交錯與強弱
二、現行法制在實務上之問題
(一)善意要保人保護機制之不足
(二)惡意要保人濫用法律保護
(三)對價平衡原則未能落實
參、德國新法對相關問題的處理方式
一、德國新法內容概述
(一)告知義務內容與違反效果
(二)保險人權利之行使限制
(三)民法詐欺規定之適用
(四)保險代理人之告知受領權
二、新法相關重點歸納
肆、法律之比較與啟示
一、理論基礎
(一)對價平衡、最大善意與消費者保護之平衡
(二)惡意者不受法律保護
二、構成要件之比較
(一)應告知之範圍
(二)應告知時間之比較
(三)法律效果之說明義務之比較
三、法律效果之檢討
(一)我國法發展方向之考量因素
(二)個別法律效果的檢討與修正
(三)保險人義務的加重
(四)惡意要保人之排除保護?
四、臺灣法修正條文之建議
(一)修正方向之重點
(二)建議修正條文之試擬
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