法學期刊.
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論著名稱: 我國制定意定監護制度之芻議(Proposal for Legislation to Voluntary Custody System in Taiwan)
編著譯者: 鄧學仁
出版日期: 2014.06
刊登出處: 台灣/臺北大學法學論叢第 90 期 /91-157 頁
頁  數: 48 點閱次數: 3414
下載點數: 192 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 鄧學仁
關 鍵 詞: 監護制度輔助制度意思能力成年監護自我決定意定監護法定監護
中文摘要: 監護制度之本意在於保護意思能力欠缺之人,其中成年監護制度特別置重於保護欠缺意思能力之老人,所謂保護在制度之設計上必須尊重老人之自我決定權,使老人藉由本制度之保護,得以安養天年。我國雖於 2009 年大幅修正監護制度,將過去完全喪失行為能力之一元化禁治產制度,修正為監護與輔助之二元化制度,但因為未導入意定監護制度,使得修法之美意大打折扣。鑑於外國設計監護制度,均以意定監護為原則,法定監護為例外,此亦為回應老人自我決定權之需求,因此本文首先探討意定監護制度立法之背景,強調意定監護為主法定監護為輔乃先進國家立法潮流,其次,說明立法之必要性所在,在於使本人喪失意思能力後,仍能基於本人的意思及其所期待的方式受到照顧,讓本人的人格及尊嚴受到最大尊重,第三,參考美德日等先進國家意定監護制度之立法例,構思我國制定意定監護之立法原則與方向,第四,具體提出立法條文草案與理由,提供我國未來立法之參考,最後以意定監護制度之引進,並不是要取代法定監護制度,而是提供本人多一個選項,使其得依自己之需要選擇最適合之類型。亦即,立於被保護人之立場,而非聲請人之立場,設計出符合被保護人最佳利益之制度作為結論。
英文關鍵詞: custody systemsassistant systemmental capacityAdult custody systemself-determinantvoluntary custodylegal custody
英文摘要: The intention of the custody systems is to protect the people who are lack of mental capacity. In these systems, Adult custody system specially focuses on the protection of elderly who are lack of mental capacity. Therefore, the protection of its institutions must respect the self-determinant of elderly, so by the protection of this system, elderly can reassure their old age.
However, in 2009, custody systems in Taiwan were revised significantly. Therefore, the past unitary incompetent system became dual systems of custody and assistant. But unfortunately, voluntary custody system was not introduced, so the meaning of amended law has been reduced. To comply with the self-determinant of elderly and in view of that custody system in the design of many foreign is almost a principle, then, the legal custody system is exceptional. So first, this paper explores the background of voluntary custody system, with this, this paper is able to highlight the international trend.
Second, this paper explains the need for legislation. In other words, even if the person lose mental capacity, are taken care of that person on the basis of their own making. As a result, the person’s personality and dignity shall be respected to the maximum. Third, with reference to the voluntary custody system of foreign legislation, this paper can consider the principles and direction of a voluntary custody system of Taiwan. Fourth, as a reference for future legislation in Taiwan, this paper attempts to submit the article of the legislation.
Finally, the introduction of voluntary custody system is not to switched the legal custody system. It provides another option to people. As a result, people can follow for their needs, and select the most appropriate type. In other words, from the perspective of those who are protected, it aims to design the optimum system.
目  次: 壹、問題提起
一、刪除法定監護人順序已成立法趨勢
二、監護制度之設計應符合尊重當事人自主性原則
三、意定監護為主法定監護為輔乃先進國家立法潮流
貳、德、美、日之意定監護制度
一、德國之監護制度
(一)德國舊法制度之概要
(二)德國成年照護法之指導原則
(三)德國成年照護制度之概要
(四)德國意定監護制度之概要
(五)小結
二、美國之監護制度
(一)美國的「無行為能力人」監護制度
(二)美國監護制度之缺失與修正
(三)繼續性代理權授與制度
(四)2006 年的統一代理權授與制度
(五)小結
三、日本之意定監護制度
(一)意定監護契約之本人或委任人
(二)意定監護契約之受任人與監護人
(三)意定監護人之死亡、辭任或不適任之解任
(四)以法人為意定監護人
(五)複數之意定監護人
(六)意定監護契約之委任事項
(七)意定監護之監督
(八)意定監護契約之終止
(九)小結
參、立法之必要性
一、意定監護立法上之必要性
二、意定監護現實上之必要性
三、尊重當事人自我決定之必要性
四、小結
肆、立法建議
一、意定監護制度的立法方式
二、意定監護優先於法定監護
三、明定意定監護適用原則
四、明定本人意思之尊重
五、意定監護契約之要式性
(一)公證
(二)登記
六、最低限度「公的監督機制」
七、制度之彈性化設計
八、意定監護制度相關人員之確保
(一)家事法官及家事調查官員額之擴充
(二)監護人及監護監督人之
人選確保
九、預立醫療指示的限制
十、小結
(一)意定監護契約之內容
(二)對意定監護人之監督體系
伍、試擬條文
陸、結論
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