法學期刊
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論著名稱: 涉外反競爭行為的管轄權與準據法(Jurisdiction and the Law Applicable to Anti-Competitive Conduct Involving Foreign Elements)
編著譯者: 陳榮傳
出版日期: 2014.04
刊登出處: 台灣/公平交易季刊第 22 卷 第 2 期 /93-161 頁
頁  數: 53 點閱次數: 1360
下載點數: 212 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 陳榮傳
關 鍵 詞: 國際私法公平交易法競爭法反托辣斯法限制競爭不公平競爭涉外因素域外效力管轄權準據法外國法院判決
中文摘要: 各國主管機關對於在外國所完成或實施的域外(Extraterritorial)反競爭行為,都面臨是否得適用其內國競爭法或反托辣斯法,予以調查處理並決定法律責任的問題。在立法及司法的實踐上,各國均認為其法律在一定條件下,得適用於在立法國境外所為或所實施的反競爭行為。美國法院認為美國反托辣斯法,在一定條件下,得適用於其結果對美國發生影響的域外反競爭行為。歐盟法院透過解釋,將反競爭行為的概念擴張,認為當事人達成協議及實施其協議之地,均為行為地,只要其中一部分在歐盟境內,即得適用歐盟競爭法。我國公平交易法對於域外效力問題,並未明文予以規定,理論上宜參考歐盟競爭法的見解,但公平會傾向於套用美國法上的用語及原則,將來可再參照行政罰法及刑法的相關規定,予以檢討。對於因反競爭行為而生之債,我國 2010 年涉外民事法律適用法第 27 條已有明文規定,實務上不宜再從公平交易法適用的地域範圍或域外效力的角度予以考量,對於違反外國競爭法或反托辣斯法所生的民事訴訟,也應類推適用民事訴訟法決定我國法院是否有管轄權。外國反托辣斯法或競爭法雖具有公法的性質,我國法院於民事訴訟中為判斷民事問題而予以適用時,不應僅因其為外國公法,即不適用之。
英文關鍵詞: Private International LawFair Trade ActCompetition LawAntitrust LawForeign ElementsUnfair CompetitionRestriction of CompetitionExtraterritorial EffectsForeign Court Judgments
英文摘要: As more and more anti-competitive conduct has recently involved foreign elements, the enforcers around the world have had to deal with the problem of the exterritorial effects of the domestic legislation on anti-trust law or competition law. It has been established in the legislative and judicial practice of most countries that the conduct concluded or implemented within a territory shall be governed by its anti-trust law or competition law under some prescriptive conditions. The US courts ruled that the US antitrust law applies to exterritorial anticompetitive conduct if it results in some prescriptive effects in the US market. The EU courts interpreted the concept of anticompetitive conduct as to include its conclusion and implementation, so that the EU competition law applies to a conduct concluded outside its territory while implemented within the EU. There is no express provision, however, regarding the exterritorial effects of the ROC Fair Trade Act. The principle developed in the EU is theoretically better for the ROC to adopt, but the Fair Trade Commission has preferred to follow the terms and principles evolved in US court practice. It is recommended that the relevant provisions in the Administrative Penalty Act and Criminal Code of the Republic of China be referred to for a compromising improvement. A new article with regard to the law applicable to an obligation resulting from an infringement of the competition order of a market by an act of unfair competition or restriction of competition was added to the Act Governing the Choice of Law to Civil Matters Involving Foreign Elements, which came into effect on May 26, 2011. It is recommended that the choice of law problem be decided under this Article instead of the extraterritorial effects of the Fair Trade Act. The relevant provisions of the Code of Civil Procedure shall apply by analogy to the jurisdiction of a ROC court over such obligations. The antitrust law or competition law of a foreign country shall not be excluded simply because of its nature of public law since it is applied in the course of deciding civil problems in a civil matter.
目  次: 一、序言
二、美國反托辣斯法的域外效力
三、歐盟競爭法的域外效力
四、我國公平交易法的域外效力
五、涉外民事的國際管轄權與準據法
六、結論
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