法學期刊.
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論著名稱: 刑法明確性原則之新定位:評介德國聯邦憲法法院之背信罪合憲性裁定(The New Definition of the Clarity of Criminal Code: Review of the German Federal Constitutional Court's Decision on the Constitutionality of Breach of Trust)
編著譯者: 薛智仁
出版日期: 2015.06
刊登出處: 台灣/國立臺灣大學法學論叢第 44 卷 第 2 期 /599-664 頁
頁  數: 66 點閱次數: 1777
下載點數: 264 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 國立臺灣大學法律學院
關 鍵 詞: 刑法明確性權力分立原則法治國原則溯及既往禁止原則違憲審查背信罪
中文摘要: 為了確保權力分立及法治國原則之實現,刑法明確性要求立法者制訂充分明確的刑法條款,但是在實踐上充滿困難。為了提升受規範者的刑罰可預見性,德國聯邦憲法法院在 2010 年的背信罪合憲性裁定裡,將刑法明確性要求延伸適用於刑法解釋,課予刑事法院將刑法明確化的共同任務。不過,本文將指出,德國聯邦憲法法院透過本裁定顛覆了刑法明確性的權力分立功能,使刑事法院成為補充立法者,卻未必有效提升受規範者之刑罰可預見性,是刑法明確性原則的危機。解除此一危機的根本之道,是重新認知刑法明確性要求的權力分立功能,在明確性審查上,降低空洞的可預見性標準的重要性。德國對於刑法明確性的新定位給予台灣大法官的啟示是,一方面應該避免在刑事立法的審查上往忽視權力分立的方向傾斜,另一方面應該加強對於最高法院判例及決議的違憲審查,而不是任由違憲的判例或決議繼續控制刑事司法。
英文關鍵詞: Clarity of Criminal CodeSeparation of PowersState unter the Rule of LawNon-retroactivity DoctrineReview of ConstitutionalityBreach of Trust
英文摘要: In 2010, in order to improve the predictability of those punished, in the German Federal Constitutional Court's decision on the constitutionality of the crime of Breach of Trust, Criminal Court was given the task of clarifying the Criminal Code, to apply the clarity on the interpretation of criminal law. In order to ensure the realization of the principle of Separation of Powers and Rechtsstaat, legislators are asked by the Clarity of Criminal Code to develop adequate criminal provisions expressly. However, it is fraught with difficulties. However, this article will point out, the decision of the German Federal Constitutional Court, in fact subverts the function of Separation of Powers in the Clarity of Criminal Code, and also making Criminal Court become complementary legislators, but it has failed to effectively enhance the predictability of those punished. It is rather a crisis in the Clarity of Criminal Code. The fundamental way to relieve this crisis, is to re-recognize the function of Separation of Powers in the Clarity of Criminal Code. The importance of reducing the vague criteria of predictability on the review of the Clarity of Criminal Code. The revelation given by German’s new definition of the clarity of criminal code, is to avoid ignoring the Separation of Powers in the review of criminal legislation, and also to strengthen the constitutional review on the Supreme Court's jurisprudence and resolutions, instead of allowing unconstitutional precedents or resolutions continue to control the criminal justice.
目  次: 壹、前言
貳、簡介德國聯邦憲法法院之背信罪合憲性裁定
一、案件事實及訴願理由
二、裁定理由
三、小結:一則挪動刑事立法與司法分工的憲法法院裁判
參、重新檢視刑法明確性原則之功能
一、實現權力分立之制度功能
二、確保受規範者之刑罰可預見性
肆、對德國釋憲實務的評析
一、基本傾向:忽視權力分立之制度功能
二、背信罪合憲性裁定:刑法明確性原則的危機
三、後續影響
四、整體評價
伍、對台灣釋憲實務的啟示
一、對刑事立法之明確性審查
二、對刑法解釋之明確性審查
陸、結論
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