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論著名稱: 刑法觀點下的公民不服從(Civil Disobedience from the View of Criminal Law)
編著譯者: 薛智仁
出版日期: 2015.09
刊登出處: 台灣/中研院法學期刊第 17 期 /131-204 頁
頁  數: 47 點閱次數: 1582
下載點數: 188 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 薛智仁
關 鍵 詞: 318 學運公民不服從抵抗權緊急避難基本權表意自由集會自由阻卻不法事由多數決原則
中文摘要: 2014 年的 318 學運占領立法院事件,促使臺灣社會(重新)認識公民不服從的概念,本文嘗試分析此一概念在刑法評價上的意義。本文認為,刑法的不法評價係以法律系統的既有標準為基礎,公民不服從概念僅是提供法官認定案件社會意義的參考。然而,刑法承認之緊急權限性質的阻卻不法事由,無法充分考量公民不服從所具有之表意自由及集會自由的基本權意義。因此,有必要承認基本權條款作為阻卻不法事由,當刑事制裁對於行為人基本權構成違反比例原則的干預時,法官應諭知無罪判決。依此觀點,318 學運之占領立法院行動所代表之表意自由及集會自由,在民主失靈的環境下具有高度重要性,相對於其所欲保護之法益,有罪判決將構成違憲的基本權干預,故應阻卻不法。
英文關鍵詞: Sunflower Movementcivil disobediencefundamental rightsright of resistancenecessityfreedom of expressionfreedom of assemblyjustificationmajoritarianism
英文摘要: The Sunflower Movement occupation of Taiwan's Legislative Yuan in 2014 urged the legal community to reconsider the concept of civil disobedience. This study tries to analyze civil disobedience in the context of the Criminal Code, and evaluate it from the view of criminal jurisprudence. In normal cases, the evaluation of the unlawfulness of a criminal offense is based on the existing legal doctrines. As a political concept, civil disobedience helps judges determine the social significance of a particular offense, but it has no bearing on the evaluation of unlawfulness. However, justifications approved by current criminal law are mainly last resorts to eliminate an emergency. But these justifications do not consider the fundamental rights such as freedom of expression and freedom of assembly, which are inherent in civil disobedience. Therefore, this article argues that, in order to avoid unconstitutional criminal judgments, it is necessary to recognize fundamental rights as grounds for justification. When a guilty verdict would violate the proportionality principle and infringe the defendant's fundamental rights, the court should find the defendant not guilty. This exposition would not endanger the certainty of law, or usurp the prerogatives of the legislature and the constitutional court. When democracy is seriously malfunctioning, freedom of expression and freedom of assembly are extremely important. Under this circumstance, acts of civil disobedience should be legally justified.
目  次: 壹、前言
貳、公民不服從概念與刑事不法之關連突
一、不法判斷脈絡下之公民不服從概念之權限
二、阻卻不法牴觸公民不服從概念?
二、阻卻不法牴觸多數決原則?
四、小結
參、公民不服從適用緊急權限之阻卻不法事由
一、抵抗權
二、正當防衛
三、緊急避難
四、小結
肆、公民不服從適用基本權之阻卻不法事由
一、基本權與刑法之個案性衝突
二、法官直接適用基本權條款之權限
(一)刑法「媒介」之必要性?
(二)基本權條款之不明確性?
(三)逾越立法者及釋憲者之權限?
(四)小結
三、個案之基本權優位性確認
四、基本權作為阻卻不法事由
五、禁止占領立法院之合憲性審查
伍、結論
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