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論著名稱: 美國溫室氣體訴訟案例分析(The Legal Analysis of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Litigations)
編著譯者: 蘇義淵
出版日期: 2009.12
刊登出處: 台灣/台灣科技法律與政策論叢第 6 卷 第 2 期 /97-131 頁
頁  數: 21 點閱次數: 386
下載點數: 84 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 蘇義淵
關 鍵 詞: 溫室氣體清潔空氣法公害當事人適格預防原則美國聯邦最高法院全球暖化氣候變遷
中文摘要: 美國聯邦最高法院在 2007 年 4 月 2 日就麻塞諸塞州控告美國環保署一案作出終局判決,認定麻塞諸塞州等原告在本案具備當事人適格,而被告美國環保署確實被國會授權可以依據清潔空氣法管制新車廢氣中二氧化碳等溫室氣體的排放標準,因為該些溫室氣體屬於空氣污染物質。並宣告司法機關同意人為因素的溫室氣體排放導致全球暖化現象,而此現象造成海平面上升並侵蝕美國海岸國土。在美國行政部門以氣候變遷與全球暖化現象之間欠缺確實科學根據為理由拒絕簽署京都議定書並對溫室氣體排放減量活動態度消極的前提下,本案的解釋等同向行政部門宣示溫室氣體管制即便不依循國際公約之規範,亦有內國法規可作為減量排放行動的法律依據。由於本案對美國在現階段溫室氣體減量管制行動上有關鍵的影響,本文提出數案例以介紹該國溫室氣體訴訟之歷程及觀察法院觀念轉換,並討論該判決與國際環境法中預防原則的關聯,作為開發中國家立法之參考。
英文關鍵詞: Greenhouse GasesClean Air Act, Public NuisanceStanding, Precautionary PrincipleU.S Federal Su-preme CourtGlobal Warming, Climate Change
英文摘要: On April 2, 2007, the U.S. Supreme Court issued its ruling in Massachusetts v. EPA, 127 S. Ct. 1438, 549 U.S., a case brought by several states and municipalities seeking the Court to compel the EPA to regulate carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas pollutant, an authority which the EPA claimed it did not have. The Court sided with the peti-tioners, holding that greenhouse gases fit within the Clean Air Acfs definition of air pollutants, and because it was deemed an air pollut-ant, that the Act does give the EPA the authority to regulate tailpipe emissions of greenhouse gases. As it pertains to the role of the EPA in the regulation of emission, the Court's decision encourages the Executive branch to be more proactive in reducing the emission of greenhouse gases, even though the U.S. has not yet ratified the Kyoto Protocol, From an environmental perspective, the decision was important, because, although the Court did not actually make a factual determination about the validity of global wanning theories, certain Justices did acknowledged, during oral arguments, the possible danger unchecked emission of green-house gases poses to the environment. Regulation of tailpipe emission of greenhouse gases in the U.S. can reduce global emission by 6%, helping to keep in check the rise in global temperature. This article will introduce several of the U.S. cases which have considered the issue of emission control. The article will also examine the precautionary principle of the international environment law discussed in some of the opinions.
目  次: 壹、前言
貳、美國訴訟案例分析
一、以公害(public nuisance)
二、以清潔空氣法(Clean Air Act,簡稱 CAA)為訴因
參、預防原則之應用為訴因
肆、結論
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