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論著名稱: 論違法解僱下僱用人之受領遲延責任與危險負擔法理之交錯:以解析我國實務見解及與日本法之比較為中心(Employer’s Delay in Acceptance or Risk of Loss in Unlawful Dismissal Cases: A Comparative Study on Japan, and the Judicial Decisions of the Civil Code §487 in Taiwan)
編著譯者: 徐婉寧
出版日期: 2017.03
刊登出處: 台灣/國立臺灣大學法學論叢第 46 卷 第 1 期 /87-133 頁
頁  數: 33 點閱次數: 1364
下載點數: 132 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 徐婉寧
關 鍵 詞: 受領遲延危險負擔民法第 487 條休業津貼歸責事由
中文摘要: 受僱人未服勞務時,原則上即無報酬請求權(no-work-no-pay 原則)。然而,我國民法第 487 條本文明定,「僱用人受領勞務遲延者,受僱人無補服勞務之義務,仍得請求報酬。」為前述未服勞務即無報酬原則之例外規定。但同條並未排除同法第 267 條於給付不能可歸責於僱用人時,受僱人方得請求報酬之危險負擔相關規定之適用,則如何判斷僱用人是否陷於受領遲延抑或係受僱人無故不服勞務,因涉及受僱人報酬請求權之有無,攸關受僱人之生計及僱用人之權益,為我國學說及實務上重要的課題。
本文擬聚焦於雇主違法解僱時,就實務見解對僱用人受領遲延要件之認定,進行分析整理,以探討雇主何時陷於受領遲延、勞工是否仍須提出給付等長久以來迭生爭議之問題。
最後透過日本法之比較研究,以日本法為借鏡,獲得於受僱人給付不能時或應依危險負擔法理來認定報酬請求權之有無之啟示。
英文關鍵詞: delay to accept the performancerisk of lossthe Civil Code § 487allowances for business interruptionattribution
英文摘要: If an employee has not performed his or her promised work, he or she will not have a claim for remuneration, which is so-called the doctrine of no-work-no-pay. However, according to the Civil Code §487, if the employer delays accepting the performance, the employee may demand for his remuneration without being bound to perform the service subsequently. It is the exception of the doctrine of no-work-no-pay. On the other hand, according to the Civil Code § 267, where “performance of the service is impossible”, the existence of the employee’s right to demand for his remuneration depends on whether the impossibility is “attributable to the employer”. Thus, how to distinguish the employer’s delay to accept the performance tendered to him from the impossibility of the employee's performance is an important issue because it will decide if the employee has the right to claim for remuneration.
Through an analysis of the Japan experiences and the reflection on the judicial decisions of the Civil Code §487 in unlawful dismissal cases in Taiwan, this research will focus on the controversial issues, such as when the employer delays accepting the performance and if the employee still has to tender the performance, and try to solve them by the doctrine of risk of loss.
目  次: 壹、前言
貳、民法第 487 條僱用人受領遲延之要件
  一、有需要僱用人受領之債務存在
  二、債務人已合法提出給付
  三、債權人拒絕受領或不能受領
參、民法第 487 條僱用人受領遲延之相關實務見解
  一、最高法院 92 年度台上字第 1979 號民事裁定
  二、雇主違法解僱時,言明勞工即無須言詞提出給付之判決
  三、雇主預示拒絕受領勞務時,雇主應自拒絕受領時起負遲延責任之判決
  四、雇主預示拒絕受領勞務時,勞工仍須言詞提出勞務給付之判決
  五、涉及勞工給付勞務意願或能力之判決
  六、小結
肆、日本法上的相關議論
  一、受領遲延與危險負擔
  二、學說的議論狀況
  三、判決的見解與學說的批判
  四、日本民法第 536 條第 2 項與日本勞基法第26條之關係
  五、小結
伍、受領遲延責任與危險負擔法理之交錯
陸、結語

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