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論著名稱: 追繳公法上不法利得立法政策之商榷-兼論食安法第 49 條之 2 立法的適當性(On the Legislation Policy of Deprivation of Illegal Benefits - Also on the Appropriateness of the Legislation of Article 49-2 of the Food Safety Law)
編著譯者: 李惠宗
出版日期: 2017.04
刊登出處: 台灣/法學叢刊第 62 卷 第 2 期 /19-50 頁
頁  數: 31 點閱次數: 1724
下載點數: 124 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 李惠宗
關 鍵 詞: 立法政策行政管制說總額說淨額說
中文摘要: 立法政策的決定,必須基於法理,符合法律體系,也必須衡諸時局,更應注重實效與時效。在符合憲法所設立的「價值體系」下,考慮「該法律體系內的一貫性」及其「與其他法律間的和諧」,此稱為「體系正義」。法官應依據法律獨立審判,但如果立法政策選擇不佳,法官亦不能逾越立法上客觀的意旨裁判,因為法解釋論不得取代立法論。
從財產權係屬制度性保障的基本權觀點來看,財產權之內容,可以由立法者加以「形成」。故國家可以透過法律的規定,決定犯罪所得或其他違反法律義務規定的利得,不得成為財產權的標的。亦即憲法財產權的保障,以取得財產具有正當泉源為限,立法上對於取得不具有實質正當性的財產利益,排除其保障,並進而對之進行追繳,即具有正當化事由,不生違憲的問題。針對現代經濟化的違反行政法義務的行為,法制上應將追繳不法利得性質定性為「準不當得利的衡平措施」而屬「管制性措施」,但基於法治國家的要求,仍必須在「立法論」作成決定。如果在立法上定性為「行政罰」的一種,則基於立法一貫性的要求,包括行為的不法性及有責性及行政罰的裁處權時效,都應前後一致。
英文關鍵詞: Onsistency of the Legal SystemIllegal BenefitsUnjust EnrichmentLimitation of the Administrative Penalty
英文摘要: The legislative policy must be based on the legal system, in line with the legal system, must also be balanced into the current situation and the effectiveness. Under the “value system” established by the Constitution, we have to consider “consistency of the legal system” and its “harmony with other laws”. Judges should judge all cases independently according to the law, but if the legislative policy is not well chosen, the judge can not go beyond the law, because the interpretation of law can not replace the legislation self.
The content of the property rights can be “formed” by the legislator. Therefore, the State should through the law deprivate the illegal benefits of crime. In view of the modern economic violations of administrative law obligations, the legal system should identify the nature of illegal Benefits as “the unjust enrichment of the balance of measures”. If the legislation is characterized as a “administrative penalty”, it should be based on the consistency of the legislation, including the wrongfulness and responsibility of the act and the limitation of the administrative penalty.
目  次: 壹、問題的提出-從食安法出發
貳、現代行政罰的立法政策的思維
參、現代社會的違法行為特徵
肆、憲法上財產權保障的基本價值
伍、追繳不法利得在行政罰體系的建構
陸、追繳不法利得的立法政策思維
柒、食安法第 49 條之 2 的問題
捌、結論及立法建議
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