法學期刊
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論著名稱: 日本新保險法責任保險被害人優先權之分析(An Analysis of Statutory Lien for Victim in Liability Insurance under the New Insurance Act in Japan)
編著譯者: 羅俊瑋楊士逸
出版日期: 2016.10
刊登出處: 台灣/國立中正大學法學集刊第 53 期 /141-198 頁
頁  數: 58 點閱次數: 679
下載點數: 232 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 中正大學法律學系 授權者指定不分配權利金給作者)
關 鍵 詞: 責任保險優先權日本保險法商法別除權擔保物權
中文摘要: 日本就保險契約法原自 1899 年即規定於商法,而逾百年未修正,就責任保險近乎空白。為保障被害人在被保險人破產時,仍能自保險金優先受償,2010年施行之新保險法,規定被害人就責任保險中之保險金請求權有優先權。此優先權在民法為擔保物權,在破產法為別除權,不受被保險人破產影響。優先權以損害賠償請求權為被擔保債權,以保險金請求權為標的物,上述兩權利不能行使時,優先權亦無法發揮效用。又優先權之行使,準用對債權強制執行之規定,並須提出「證明擔保物權存在之文書」。為避免保險人在收取訴訟中爭執,「證明擔保物權存在之文書」在實際運用上,與要求「賠償責任確定」差異不大。被保險人破產並免責時,優先權不應受影響,仍得行使之。本文即就此為討論,藉以供我國保險法未來修法之參考。
英文關鍵詞: Liability InsuranceStatutory LienJapanese Insurance ActSecurity InterestRight of Separate SatisfactionCommercial Code
英文摘要: The article concerning the insurance contracts was stipulated under Commercial Code in Japan which was enacted and came into effect in 1899, but there was almost no provision for a liability insurance contract except Sec.667. Under new Insurance Act in Japan which became effective from 2010, a statutory lien is introduced on a liability insurance contract to allow the victim of the insured event to excise the right to demand from the insured preferential compensation from the insurance benefits for damage relating to such an insured event, even if the insured has gone bankrupt. The statutory lien is a security interest under Civil Code as well as an exemption right under Bankruptcy Act and it would not be prejudiced when the insured goes bankrupt. The statutory lien is made to secure a claim for damage, and the subject matter is the amount of insured preferential compensation from insurance benefits. When the above two conditions could not be satisfied, the statutory lien could not be functioned either. The procedure of execution against a claim shall apply mutatis mutandis and the statutory lien shall be commenced only when a certificate which being able to prove the existence of the security interest submitted. In order to avoid dispute between insurer and victim in a suit for collection, the “certificate” is similar with requirement of “an acknowledgement of claim” in reality. When insured goes bankruptcy and files a petition for grant of discharge, it shall not affect any right for the statutory lien holder. This paper focuses on statutory lien for victim in liability insurance and proposes recommendations for the reform of the related laws and regulations in Taiwan.
目  次: 壹、前言
貳、日本責任保險之給付內容
一、責任保險給付之對象
(一)損害填補給付
(二)防禦給付
二、保險金給付額之確定
參、優先權之立法
一、條文規定
二、採取優先權之原因
(一)修法目的之考量
(二)維持既存法制之考量
三、全面適用優先權
(一)限定於被保險人破產時適用
(二)限定於人身損害時適用
(三)限定於責任確定時適用
(四)限定於消費者保險始有適用
(五)小結
肆、優先權之行使方式
一、優先權之性質
二、實行優先權之程序
(一)概說
(二)扣押保險金請求權
(三)複數被害人
(四)收取債權
(五)收取訴訟
(六)移轉命令
三、證明擔保物權存在之文書
(一)問題之提出
(二)準名義說
(三)書證說
(四)實務見解
四、優先權不能行使之情形
(一)受損害賠償請求權影響
(二)受保險金請求權影響
(三)時效
伍、破產程序中之優先權
一、別除權
(一)別除權之意義
(二)別除權之行使
(三)其他相關法律
二、破產人免責
陸、我國法規定之檢討-代結論
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