法學期刊
論著名稱: 論反於真實之認領:瑞士民法、德國民法與我國民法之比較觀察(Recognition without True Connection of Parentage: a Comparative Study of the Swiss Civil Code, the German Civil Code and the Civil Code of Taiwan)
編著譯者: 林易典
出版日期: 2017.12
刊登出處: 台灣/國立臺灣大學法學論叢第 46 卷 第 4 期 /1671-1739 頁
頁  數: 69 點閱次數: 979
下載點數: 276 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 國立臺灣大學法律學院
關 鍵 詞: 認領否認認領撤銷認領反於真實之認領血緣連繫
中文摘要: 非婚生子女經生父認領者,依民法第 1065 條第 1 項前段規定視為婚生子女,而與生父發生法律上父子關係。惟如認領人主張自己為生父,然其實際上並無真實血緣連繫而非生父之情形,此等反於真實之認領是否仍能有效發生認領效力,即是否仍能有效發生法律上父子關係,對此我國多數學說見解及法院實務係採取否定的見解,而與比較法上之發展有著相當之差異。本文就此進行全面性之檢視,同時並對於我國認領規範內容所繼受之瑞士民法,以及現行法採取相同立法例之德國民法相關規範進行探討。解釋上應認為,認領不以真實血緣連繫為要件,認領之有效性並不取決於認領人與非婚生子女間是否具有真實血緣連繫,反於真實之認領係屬有效但得加以否認或撤銷,方能保障非婚生子女之利益,並符合血緣法制之整體價值判斷。
英文關鍵詞: recognitiondenial of the recognitionrevocation of the recognitionrecognition without true connection of parentageconnection of parentage
英文摘要: A child without marital status is deemed as whom with marital status through the recognition of the father according to Art. 1065 (1) sentence 1 of the Civil Code of Taiwan. The legal parent-child relationship between father and child is therefore established. If the recognizer who has no true connection of parentage with the child declares himself as the father, i.e. the recognizer is not the true biological father, the majority of academic opinion and judicial practices reject the validity of recognition and legal parent-child relationship arising from such kind of recognition. This significantly differs from the development of comparative laws. This thesis examines this issue overall. The objects of the examination includes the relevant provisions in the Swiss Civil Code, from which the provisions of the recognition of the Civil Code of Taiwan received the content, and the provisions in the German Civil Code, which includes the same regulatory model as the provisions in the Civil Code of Taiwan. The connection of parentage is explanatorily considered not necessary for the recognition. The validity of recognition is independent of the connection of parentage between recognizer and child without marital status. The recognition without true connection of parentage is valid but deniable or revocable. Therefore this protects the interests of children without marital status and conforms with the overall value decision of the provisions of parentage.
目  次: 壹、前言
貳、瑞士民法下關於認領與反於真實認領之規範
  一、認領為子女與生父發生法律上父子關係之原因
  二、認領之要件與效果
  三、與血緣關係不一致的認領之有效性
  四、例外不得為與血緣不符的認領之情形
  五、認領撤銷之訴之撤銷權人
  六、撤銷事由與舉證責任
  七、分析
參、德國民法下關於認領與反於真實認領之規範
  一、德國民法下之認領規範
  二、與血緣關係不一致的認領之有效性
  三、撤銷父子關係之撤銷權人
  四、撤銷權之行使
  五、分析
肆、我國民法下反於真實認領效力之實務與學說
  一、無效說之法院實務與學說主張
  二、推定有效說與有效說之法院實務與學說主張
  三、分析
伍、反於真實認領有效性之理論基礎
  一、認領人主觀上自稱生父已足
  二、認領制度即在取代真實血緣連繫
  三、提升法律關係可預見性與法律安定性
  四、平衡保障非婚生子女與利害關係人間之利益
  五、否認認領規範肯定反於真實認領之有效性
  六、撤銷認領規範之導入再次肯定反於真實認領之有效性
  七、收養規範本身無法否定反於真實認領之有效性
  八、違反收養要件之反於真實認領仍能具有效性
  九、符合比較法上無血緣連繫認領具有效性的規範潮流
陸、反於真實認領有效性下認領規範之檢討
  一、否認與撤銷認領修正為經由法院審理
  二、生父撤銷權之導入
  三、認領有效性不區別認領人主觀要件具正當性
  四、排除認領人有意、明知為反於真實認領之認領撤銷權
  五、認領否認權與撤銷權除斥期間之導入
柒、結論
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