法學期刊
論著名稱: 美國私部門吹哨者保護法制之研究(An Overview of US Federal Whistleblower Laws in Private Sector)
編著譯者: 吳協展
出版日期: 2018.01
刊登出處: 台灣/法學叢刊第 63 卷 第 1 期 /113-133 頁
頁  數: 21 點閱次數: 952
下載點數: 84 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 法學叢刊雜誌社
關 鍵 詞: 吹哨者私部門反報復舉證責任倒置職業安全暨健康委員會(簡稱 OSHA)
中文摘要: 私部門內的吹哨者,可揭露組織內管理階層的違失與不法,但也可能因吹哨者惡意及濫行的舉報影響組織的運作及商譽,然在涉及公眾利益的特定產業,吹哨者法制的建立則是私部門揭弊的重要政策。
美國聯邦法規就私部門吹哨者保護法制,對不同產業予以分別立法:吹哨者身分保密措施、吹哨者申訴的權利及對報復行為的救濟、調查中舉證責任倒置及吹哨者相關民、刑事責任的減免,同時為了反制匿名、惡意及虛偽舉報,則分別不予調查或施以行政裁罰。組織法上,美國國會、在 1970 年通過職業安全暨健康法,在聯邦政府在勞動部下設立獨立之職業安全衛生署(Occupational Safety and Health Administration,簡稱 OSHA),負責私部門吹哨者的舉報、因舉報而遭受報復行為的調查及程序,並作成準司法性質的初步命令、相關法令研擬、政策制定、各部門間執法上的協調。
本文介紹美國聯邦法有關私部門吹哨者保護之法律並檢視我國現行法規定不足之處。進一步提出日後私部門吹哨者保護立法上的建議,期能建立符合我國社會、文化的私部門吹哨者保護法。
英文關鍵詞: WhistleblowerPrivate SectorAnti-retaliationReverse Burden of ProofOSHA
英文摘要: Whistleblowers in the private sector can reveal managerial wrongdoing, illegal behavior, or unethical behavior within organization, while they might also undermine one’s operation and reputation because of their maliciously and recklessly accuse. However, in certain public interests industries, enacting a single dedicated whistleblower protection law is an imperative policy to uncover corruption in the private sector.
The US federal law that contains whistleblower protection or anti-retaliation provision is dispersed across numerous individual statutes. These statues encompass measures to keep whistleblowers’ identity secret, rights to file a claim, prohibition on discharge and retaliation against complainant, as well as remedies for retaliations against whistleblowers, reversing the burden of proof in investigation procedure, relieving whistleblowers from civil and criminal liability. These statues also include dismissal of the case whenever an anonymous whistleblower complainant exists. In addition, a fine will be imposed on frivolous or malicious complainant. The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 created the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), an Independent agency of the United States Department of Labor, which is in charge of receiving complaint filed by whistleblower in the private sector, investigating reprisals against whistleblowers, making quasi-judicial preliminary orders, issuing relevant rules, regulations, directives and policies, and coordinating other law enforcement agencies.
This study introduces US federal whistleblower laws in the private sector, reviews the current provisions govering whistleblowering in Taiwan and points out their inadequacies. Furthermore, it discusses legislative suggestions for enacting the whistleblower protection law in the private sector.
目  次: 壹、概說
貳、公部門吹哨者保護法
參、私部門吹哨者保護法
肆、我國現行法制及立法模式選擇
伍、立法事項上的建議
陸、結論
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