法學期刊
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論著名稱: 2017 年民事法年度回顧:民事財產法裁判回顧(Annual Review of 2017 on the Civil Law: The Supreme Court Judgments on Property Law)
編著譯者: 陳聰富
出版日期: 2018.11
刊登出處: 台灣/國立臺灣大學法學論叢第 47 卷 特刊/1755-1792 頁
頁  數: 38 點閱次數: 1715
下載點數: 152 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 陳聰富
關 鍵 詞: 借貸契約消滅時效除斥期間預約附隨義務代償請求權情事變更原則醫療水準代理同意
中文摘要: 本文蒐集 2017 年最高法院民事判決,蒐集方法為彙整各法學雜誌搜錄或評論的重要裁判,從中挑選在法學理論上具有重要性的案例,撰寫成篇。
在民法總則方面,於利息先扣之消費借貸契約,應扣除利息後始得計算利息;人格權之妨礙排除請求權,並無消滅時效之適用;於當事人協商造成時效消滅時,創設時效不完成制度。
在契約法方面,預約義務人違反預約時,應負損害賠償責任。債務人違反附隨義務時,債權人得請求損害賠償,並得解除契約。在承攬瑕疵擔保責任案件,如逾越一年瑕疵發現期間,定作人不得再依不完全給付之規定行使權利。代償請求權之代償物包含交易對價,且其消滅時效採取「代償請求權不發生說」。至於情事變更原則所生之增加給付請求權之除斥期間,最高法院見解分歧,並非一致。
在侵權責任方面,民法第 184 條第 1 項前段之權利內涵及後段之善良風俗,採取寬鬆解釋,適度擴大侵權責任之成立。商品自傷,不在消費者保護法第 7 條規定之保護範圍。
在醫療責任方面,醫療常規非醫療人員注意義務之唯一標準,且醫療水準之注意義務即為善良管理人之注意義務。於發生重大醫療瑕疵時,醫療因果關係發生舉證責任轉換之效果。告知後同意法則中的「代理同意」,親屬之意見僅具有參考價值,仍應以理性病人之最大利益作為醫療處置之基礎。
英文關鍵詞: contract of loanstatute of limitationstatute of reposepreliminary contractancillary obligationssubstitute claimschange of circumstancesmedical standardssubstitute consent
英文摘要: This paper reviews important civil law judgments made by the Supreme Court in 2017. In the General Principles of the Civil Code, the sum of a contract of loan has to be reduced by the interest that has been collected by the creditor. The right to injunction based on the right of personality is not subject to the statute of limitations. The statute of limitations is postponed due to the parties’ negotiation.
In the contract law, a debtor of a preliminary contract is liable for damages when violating his duty to performance. Where a debtor fails to perform his ancillary obligations, the creditor may terminate the contract and claim damages. Where an undertaker’s work is defective, the proprietor is not allowed to make a claim based on incomplete performance if he passed the one year period of time to find the defects. The claim to increase the reimbursement for the work under the doctrine of change of circumstances is subject to different limitation of period of time under the Supreme Court decisions.
In tort law, the definitions of “right” and “good morals” stipulated in article 184 are expanded widely. The liability for the defects on goods is not covered by article 7 of the Consumer Protection Act. Further, in medical malpractice, medical custom is not a decisive criterion in determining the doctor’s negligence, while medical standard is the same as a good manager’s standard of care. Where a doctor is grossly negligent, the burden of proof for causation is on the doctor, instead of the patient. Although relatives of a patient are allowed to express their opinions, their opinions are merely for reference but not decisive.
目  次: 壹、序言
貳、民法總則
  一、借貸契約之要物性
  二、隱名代表
  三、消滅時效之客體
  四、消滅時效障礙事由
參、契約法
  一、廣告內容為契約之內容
  二、預約不履行之賠償責任
  三、附隨義務之違反效果
  四、不完全給付與承攬瑕疵擔保責任
  五、代償請求權之類推適用及消滅時效
  六、情事變更原則之適用
肆、侵權責任
  一、侵害之權利
  二、商品自傷
  三、交易安全義務
  四、人格權侵害之不法性
  五、背於善良風俗之方法
伍、醫療責任
  一、醫療過失標準
  二、因果關係之舉證責任
  三、告知後同意法則
陸、結語
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