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論著名稱: 海峽兩岸有關毒奶事件的法律觀照
編著譯者: 張麗卿
出版日期: 2009.12
刊登出處: 台灣/東海大學法學研究第 31 期 /105-149 頁
頁  數: 45 點閱次數: 216
下載點數: 180 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 東海大學法律學院 授權者指定不分配權利金給作者)
關 鍵 詞: 毒奶事件三聚氰胺食品衛生想像競合加重結果犯
中文摘要: 2008 年,大陸發生三鹿集團製銷毒奶粉的事件,本事件除造成當地多數民眾的死傷外,台灣也因在食品的製作上使用三鹿奶粉作為原料而遭受牽連。本事件堪稱是近年「黑心食品」的典型代表,也突顯食品衛生安全問題的重要性。雖然大陸法院對於毒奶案的被告們已為判決,但是食品衛生安全法益,如何藉由國家刑罰權的介入而能夠獲得實質的保障,這個問題仍有待解決。
大陸對於食品安全保護的刑事規範,主要是大陸刑法第 140 條生產銷售偽劣產品罪與第 144 條生產銷售有毒有害食品罪,另有可能成立第 115 條以危險方法危害公共安全罪。至於台灣對於食品安全的刑事立法,除刑法第 191 與 191 之 1 條外,另有食品衛生管理法第 34 條。
就兩岸食品衛生安全的立法相較,大陸無論是規範的結構或法律之效果,皆較台灣縝密且嚴厲,但是易產生刑法構成要件明確性不足以及法律效果過於嚴厲的問題;反之,台灣對於食品衛生安全的刑事立法相對寬鬆,若毒奶事件發生在台灣,可能產生無法有效保障人民身體健康法益的立法缺漏。透過毒奶事件,恰可全面檢討我國食品衛生安全的刑事立法,及未來在刑法修正時提供具體建議。
英文關鍵詞: Chinese milk scandalMelaminefood safetynotional concurrenceincreased effect offender
英文摘要: The Chinese milk scandal broke in 2008 that was a food safety incident in the People’s Republic of China involving milk and infant formula adulterated with melamine. The incident not only had many victims, including infants dying and babies hospitalized but also found that the melamine in the tainted milk were used in Taiwan after widespread. This scandal was a typical toxic food event that damaged the reputation of China and raised concerns about food safety. China court have sentenced the defendants in response to the incident. On the concern of regulating food safety, how to insure the legal interests of persons and successful operation of the State’s power to obtain substantive protection shall be given.
In China, three articles are established in Criminal Code to regulate food safety: Article 140- selling false product, Article 144- making-selling adulterated food and Article 115- in dangerous way to offense against public security. While in Taiwan, food safety is regulated under Article 191 and Article 191-1 of criminal code as well as Article 34 of food safety and management Act.
Comparing with food safety legislations between Taiwan and China, the structure of norms and effect of law in China would be obviously denseness and strict than Taiwan. However, that it may raise the issues of concerning unclear criminal elements and too much strict effect of law. In contrast to regulating food safety and sanitation in Taiwan, loose criminal regulations would be a leak of protecting right of human health if the similar adulteration incident happened. Overwhelmingly, Chinese milk scandal can help us to review criminal regulations for food safety and sanitation in Taiwan and make specific recommendations to Criminal Law Revision Committee in the future.
目  次: 壹、前言
貳、毒奶事件的始末及判決
參、毒奶事件的制裁規範
一、生產銷售偽劣產品罪
二、生產銷售有毒有害食品罪
三、以危險方法危害公共安全罪
肆、台灣食品衛生安全的有關刑法規範
一、製造販賣陳列妨害衛生物品罪
二、台灣食品衛生管理法第 34 條
三、競合
伍、毒奶事件相應的台灣刑法規範
一、製造與販賣毒物者
二、對食物原料添加毒物的製造者
三、使用有毒原料的食品製造業
四、廢弛職務與玩忽職守
陸、兩岸食品衛生安全相關立法的相互借鑑與省思
一、規範結構的密度
二、法律效果的程度
三、兩岸相關立法的相互借鑑與省思
柒、結語
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