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論著名稱: 正當防衛與比例原則
編著譯者: 薛智仁
出版日期: 2019.07.15
刊登出處: 台灣/月旦法學雜誌第 291 期 /49-71 頁
頁  數: 22 點閱次數: 2277
下載點數: 88 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 薛智仁
關 鍵 詞: 正當防衛比例原則生命權社會連帶義務
中文摘要: 通說認為,正當防衛之目的在保護個人權利和維護法秩序,故防衛者不負迴避侵害的義務,防衛手段不適用利益權衡,但是在侵害輕微及利益明顯失衡時,防衛手段受社會倫理的限制。近年來,此一觀點受到憲法學挑戰,基於憲法對生命權的保障及維護法秩序的價值相對性,主張防衛手段應該受到比例原則之拘束,使正當防衛權受到更多的限制。
本文將指出,正當防衛之理論基礎不是維護法秩序,而是在於維護個人主觀權利的完整性,受到不法侵害之人有權採取必要手段維護其主觀權利;若是國家欲對正當防衛權增設限制,此一限制必須符合比例原則。以此為基礎,本文認為在侵害輕微及利益明顯失衡的情形,限制正當防衛權所保障之生命利益有限,卻使被侵害者陷入刑罰及反遭正當防衛的風險,並向社會大眾傳達國家拒絕保護財產權的訊息,故此一限制難以通過衡平性審查。據此,上述情狀不應構成正當防衛之限制理由。
英文關鍵詞: Right to Self-Defense DefensePrinciple of ProportionalityRight to LifeObligation of Social Solidarity
英文摘要: The majority opines that the purpose of right to self-defense is to protect individual’s rights and maintain legal order, therefore, the defender doesn’t assume the obligation of infringement-avoidance and interest-balancing doesn’t apply to the defense approach. However, the defense approach will be restricted by social ethics when facing obvious imbalance of interests and minor infringement.
This article points out that the theoretical foundation for right to self-defense is not maintaining the legal order but the integrity of individual’s subjective rights. Victims of illegal infringements are entitled to take necessary means to protect their subjective rights, and governments’ restrictions on right to self-defense shall be restrained by the principle of proportionality. Based on that foundation, this article opines that, under the circumstances of minor infringements and obvious imbalance of interests, the life interest protected by restricting right to self-defense is relatively limited compared to1 the risks (i.e. incrimination and the counterattack of right to self-defense) imposed against the victims, delivering a message to the public that governments refuse to protect property rights. Thus, this restriction can hardly pass the review of equitable principle. Consequently, the above said circumstances shall not constitute restrictions on right to self-defense.
目  次: 壹、問題所在
貳、正當防衛之刑法理論發展
參、正當防衛之憲法挑戰及回應
肆、本文意見
伍、結論
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