法學期刊
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論著名稱: 監察網路通訊作為抗制犯罪手段之原則及界限(Limits and Principles of Internet Communication Surveillance as a Measure Against Crime)
編著譯者: 張麗卿
出版日期: 2019.06
刊登出處: 台灣/輔仁法學第 57 期 /163-210 頁
頁  數: 48 點閱次數: 438
下載點數: 192 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 輔仁大學法律學院 授權者指定不分配權利金給作者)
關 鍵 詞: 數位時代網路通訊監察線上搜索基本權干預法律保留
中文摘要: 數位時代下的網路通訊來臨,二十一世紀的現代社會不論哪一行業,都離不開網路,司法實務的犯罪偵查,更是少不了運用網路進行偵查。然而面對網路通訊資料取得監察的新領域,法律規範似乎有些未盡之處,仍有待釐清與反思。網路通訊監察重大干預通訊自由與資訊自決的基本權,因此必須得到法律的授權,並且由法官針對個案依照比例原則加以實質審查。
為了防止網路通訊資料取得的可能弊端,規範上應遵守事前審查以及事後審查的雙軌審查制度,亦即事前須符合重罪原則、嚴格遵守程序以及禁止一票吃到底與無限制的續行偵查。此外,事後應搭配嚴格證據審查以及事後告知等方式,避免檢警為了偵查犯罪,而更進一步侵害人民基本權利。
網路通訊監察必須得到業者的配合,否則很難對於擷取的封包進行解密。特別是軟體資訊業者的配合。網路通訊業者,使用封包方式禁止第三方侵入,造成網路偵查的困境。更有甚者,相關業者為保護秘密而拒絕揭開封包,可以想像這些網路軟體,可能成為隱匿刑事犯罪證據的溫床,因此有必要增加新的規範,使未來新的科技偵查,有相對應的法源依據。本文針對網路通訊資料的監察,如何加以適當約束,避免人民的基本權受到侵犯,提出相關建議,俾解決取得網路通訊資料的困境。
英文關鍵詞: Digital EraInternet Communication SurveillanceOnline SearchFundamental Rights InterferenceLegal Reservation
英文摘要: Along with the evolution of internet communication in digital era, the internet has been applying in all walks of modern society in 21st century, not to mention the using of internet for the criminal investigation by judicial practice. However, facing this new field of surveillance on the acquisition of internet communication materials, relevant regulations seem to be inadequate and remains to be clarified and reflected. Internet Communication Surveillance interferes fundamental rights concerning the freedom of communication and the self-determination of information, so that it shall be authorized by laws and examined substantively by judges to each case according to the principle of proportionality. In order to prevent the possible abuse of materials acquiring from internet communication, it shall follow the dual-track review system, in advance and afterwards, in regulation. That is, it shall, in advance, comply with the principle of serious crime as well as due procedure strictly, and it is forbidden to use only one single warrant throughout the whole surveillance process and carry out the investigation unlimitedly. In addition, it shall go with the ways afterwards such as strict evidence review and informing to the court concerned afterwards etc., which avoids further infringement of people’s fundamental rights by the crime investigation from prosecutors and the police.
Internet communication surveillance must cooperate with the industry, especially with software and information industry; otherwise it is hard to decrypt the captured packets. The internet communication industry uses packets as measures to prohibit from the invasion of the third party, which leads to a difficult situation for the internet investigation. Furthermore, related industries refuse to open packets for the reason of secrets protection, and these internet software might, imaginably, become a breeding ground for concealing criminal evidence. Therefore, it is necessary to add new regulation as corresponding legal basis for the new scientific and technological ways of investigation in the future. This article would make relevant suggestions of proper restraints on the internet communication surveillance to avoid the infringement of people’s fundamental rights, so that to solve the dilemma of acquiring data from internet communication.
目  次: 壹、前言
貳、監察網路通訊為抗制犯罪之利器
一、網路通訊之監察
二、網路通訊監察與線上搜索不同
參、監察網路通訊所干預之基本權及其正當化依據
一、受干預之基本權
二、干預之正當化基礎
肆、網路通訊監察之規範與界限
一、事前審查機制之原則
二、事後監督機制與法效性確保
伍、監察網路通訊之實務困境及其解決
一、實務運作上之困境
二、出路之建議
陸、結語
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