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論著名稱: 聯合國國際商品買賣公約之出賣人義務與違約責任:與臺灣民法之比較研究(The Seller's Obligations and the Remedies of Nonperformance Under the UN Convention on the International Sales of Goods: A Comparative Study with the Taiwan Civil Code)
編著譯者: 陳聰富
出版日期: 2019.09
刊登出處: 台灣/國立臺灣大學法學論叢第 48 卷 第 3 期 /1081-1145 頁
頁  數: 65 點閱次數: 1162
下載點數: 260 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 國立臺灣大學法律學院
關 鍵 詞: 聯合國國際商品買賣公約出賣人義務違約救濟解除權損害賠償請求權給付障礙重大違約
中文摘要: 聯合國國際商品買賣公約(CISG)於 1980 年通過,在 2017 年 12 月底前,已有 89 個國家簽署。該公約成為嗣後國際契約法文件及各國修法的參考藍本,值得研究。
本文以 CISG 規定出賣人的義務型態及出賣人違約時之救濟方法為研究主題,比較臺灣民法的相關規定,藉以了解臺灣債法及買賣法之規範,與現代國際契約法規範的異同,以期明瞭 CISG 及臺灣民法的規範特色。
本文指出,CISG 以契約有效性原則為出賣人違約救濟之立法原則,規定出賣人之瑕疵修補權及替代履行權,臺灣民法並無類似規定。其強調買受人之履行請求權,輔以買受人之催告制度,儘可能使出賣人履行契約,以實現完全履行原則。又買受人必須於重大違約時,始得解除契約,以維護契約之有效性原則,但不以可歸責於出賣人為解除權之行使要件,顯與臺灣法不同。其關於買受人之損害賠償請求權,創設給付障礙之免責事由,與我國之歸責原則,在立法上具有重大不同,但就實務運作而言,並無實質差異。
英文關鍵詞: CISGseller’s obligationsremedies for breach of contractright to terminationright to damagesimpediments of performancefundamental breach of contract
英文摘要: The UN Convention on the International Sales of Goods governs the seller’s obligations and the remedies of seller’s nonperformance, both of which are the main topics of this paper, where it also makes a comparison with the Taiwan laws. It is aimed to understand the common and different rules between the Taiwan law and CISG on the law of sales contract.
This paper points out that CISC is based on the principle of validity of contract to develop the remedies of seller’s non-performance. CISG offers the seller a right to cure his defective performance and a right to substitute performance if possible, both of which are not governed by the Taiwan Civil Code. CISG recognizes the buyer’s right to specific performance, with an obligation to notice in order for the seller to perform his duty as possible as he can. Also, the buyer is not entitled to terminate a contract unless the seller’s non-performance is a fundamental breach of a contract, which is designed to maintain the principle of validity of contract. The right to termination is not based on the fault principle, different from the Taiwan law. CISG creates the doctrine of impediment beyond the debtor’s control for him to avoid liability of compensation, which is also different from the Taiwan law, where Taiwan compensation law is based on the fault principle, although their rules are not significantly different in practice.
Where both CISG and Taiwan Civil Code stipulate the rules for a buyer to make claims on specific performance, substitute performance, repair, and price reduction, their practices are different from each other and the CISG rules provide a good reference for Taiwan law when interpreting its Civil Code.
In addition to a comparison between CISG and Taiwan Civil Code, this paper also introduce the relevant rules of law stipulated in Unidroit Principles of International Commercial Contracts, Principles of European Contract Law and Draft Common Frame of Reference so as to clarify the application of CISG in the international contract laws. All of these international contract documents demostrate the significance of CISG in the trend of development of international contract law.
目  次: 壹、序言
貳、出賣人之義務
一、標的物給付義務
二、標的物符合契約約定之擔保責任
三、權利瑕疵擔保責任
參、出賣人違約救濟之基本原則
一、契約有效性原則
二、違約方式的分類
三、救濟方法的種類
肆、出賣人違約之救濟方式(一):履行請求權與價金減少請求權
一、出賣人之權利:修補權與替代履行權
二、買受人之權利:特定給付請求權、替代物給付請求權、瑕疵修補請求權、價金減少請求權
伍、出賣人違約之救濟方式(二):解除權
一、重大違約之概念
二、解除權之行使事由
三、解除契約之效果
四、臺灣法上之解除權
陸、出賣人違約之救濟方式(三):損害賠償請求權
一、損害賠償與其他救濟方式之競合
二、CISG 之規定:免責事由-無法控制與預見之障礙事由
三、臺灣民法:可歸責事由
柒、結語
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