法學期刊.
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論著名稱: 集會遊行中言論自由與名譽之保護(The Protection of Freedom of Speech and Fame during Assembly and Parade)
編著譯者: 李錫棟
出版日期: 2020.04
刊登出處: 台灣/法學叢刊第 65 卷 第 2 期 /37-66 頁
頁  數: 30 點閱次數: 427
下載點數: 120 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 法學叢刊雜誌社
關 鍵 詞: 言論自由名譽誹謗侮辱集會遊行
中文摘要: 言論自由與名譽各有其價值,言論在性質上具有積極的、主動的、作為的性質。名譽是個人的人格在社會生活上所受的評價,在性質上是累積的、消極的、被動的、不作為的,而不具有主動的、侵害的性質。因此在調和這二個法益時,應將重點放在各自的價值以及言論是在何種情況如何侵害個人名譽,再去思考如何取捨這二個權利。現行刑法的誹謗罪對於言論自由與名譽權的取捨,已做了很好的調和。其調和取捨的標準有四:即(1)言論是否侵害名譽、(2)言論所指摘的事實是否真實、(3)言論是否與公益有關、(4)發表言論是否出於惡意。集會遊行法(以下簡稱集遊法)第 30 條為刑法第 140 條侮辱公署與公務員罪及第 309 條公然侮辱罪、第 310 條誹謗罪等的特別規定,其成立之條件是將刑法第 140 條、第 309 條、第 310 條各罪匯集在一起規定,再加上必須是在「集會、遊行時」之條件。基於集遊法第 30 條所指涉之「誹謗」與刑法第 310 條第 1 項及第 3 項所指之「誹謗」同義,亦為刑法第 311 條所稱之「發表言論」所包括;以及刑法第 310 條第 3 項及第 311 條均可認為是集遊法第 1 條第 2 項所稱之其他法律,而應認為刑法第 310 條第 3 項及第 311 條之規定均可適用於集遊法第 30 條之誹謗行為。同理,刑法第 311 條之規定亦可適用於集遊法第 30 條之侮辱行為。但刑法第 310 條第 3 項之規定則不能適用於集遊法第 30 條之侮辱行為,亦即不能以真實之證明而阻卻違法。
英文關鍵詞: Freedom of SpeechFameDefamationinsultsAssemblyParade
英文摘要: Freedom of speech and fame have their own value. Speech is positive and active while fame is the evaluation of an individual’s personality in social life, which is cumulative and passive. Therefore, when reconciling these two legal benefits, the point should be the value and how the speech violates the fame of the individual, and then think about how to choose these two rights. The crime of defamation in the Criminal Code has made a good reconciliation between the freedom of speech and the right of fame. There are four standards for reconciliation. 1. Whether speech violates fame. 2. Whether the facts mentioned in the speech are true. 3. Whether speech is related to public interest. 4. Whether the speech was malicious. Article 30 of the Assembly and Parade Act is a special provision for the crimes of insulting the public office and public servants in Article 140 and the crimes of blatant insulting in Article 309 and defamation in Article 310 of the Criminal Code. The condition for its establishment is to bring together the crimes of Article 140, 309, and 310 of the Criminal Code, plus the condition that it must be “at the time of assembly or parade.” Based on the definition of defamation referred to in Article 30 of the Assembly and Parade Act, which is synonymous with the definition referred to in Articles 310, Paragraph 1 of the Criminal Code, and is also included in the “statement” referred to in Article 311 of the Criminal Code. Besides, both Article 310, Paragraph 3 and Article 311 of the Criminal Code can be considered as other laws referred to in Article 1, Paragraph 2 of the Assembly and Parade Act, and it should be considered that the provisions of Article 310, Paragraph 3, and Article 311 of the Criminal Code can be applied to the defamation of Article 30 of the Assembly and Parade Act. Hence, the provisions of Article 311 of the Criminal Code are also applicable to the insults of Article 30 of the Assembly and Parade Act. However, the provisions of Article 310, Paragraph 3 of the Criminal Code cannot be applied to the insults of Article 30 of the Assembly and Parade Act, that is, it cannot be affirmative defense by truth proving.
目  次: 壹、概說
貳、言論自由之保障
參、名譽權之保障
肆、言論自由與名譽權保障之衝突與調和
伍、集會遊行中言論自由之限制
陸、結論
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