法學期刊
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論著名稱: 人工生殖子女親子法制之檢討與修法建議(Reviews on the Regulations of Parenthood in the Assisted Reproductive Era)
編著譯者: 邱玟惠
出版日期: 2009.09
刊登出處: 台灣/國立臺灣大學法學論叢第 38 卷 第 3 期 /281-348 頁
頁  數: 68 點閱次數: 191
下載點數: 272 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 邱玟惠
關 鍵 詞: 人工生殖親子關係胚胎生母恆定婚姻示父婚生子女婚生推定婚生否認血統
中文摘要: 人工生殖技術之發展,以非性交之輔助性生殖方法實現了不孕夫妻的親子期盼,但由於人工生殖可能非法進行或發生技術面之錯誤,卻也創造出各種令人錯愕之親子組合,倘依現行人工生殖法與民法親屬編相關規定論斷其親子關係,恐將得出吾人不易接受的結論。準此,正視現有親子法制之不足而作一整合性檢討與修訂,應有必要。
本文認為人工生殖法第 23 條至第 24 條「視為」婚生子女之規定有待斟酌,而「受胎」一詞之用語模稜,對合法捐精者與捐卵者、以及精卵細胞遭誤用者之權益保護並不周全,均宜加以修訂。再者,各種非法人工生殖或技術面錯誤情形由於多不能適用人工生殖法,其親子關係之認定將悉數回歸適用民法親屬編之規定。然而,人工生殖技術割裂了分娩事實與血統真實之一致性,也破壞了生殖細胞產生、受精與胚胎著床在時間上的緊密連接性,連帶地影響了「生母恆定原則」之血統正確性,故本文認為,對現行法之解釋,似可考慮改以「生母推定原則」取代之,雖仍維持依「婚姻示父」原則推定生父,但夫妻之一方或子女,於符合特定要件與期間內,對生母與生父之兩個推定,均容許其依血統真實關係而否認之;再輔以增訂「婚生關係全否認限制」與「生母認領」等相關規定,以確保子女之基本法律地位利益,此外並開放生母認領子女之途徑。
須特別強調的是,雖謂「生母推定」然於真實血統關係下將無異於「生母恆定」,因此,本文雖採「生母推定原則」,惟此對於現今社會中非依人工生殖方式所建立之絕大多數親子關係而言,完全不生影響。此一生母決定原則之變動,可更具彈性地因應人工生殖科技對親屬法制之衝擊,有效補強親子認定規範上之漏洞,除能夠體現司法院釋字第587號解釋所揭示兼顧血統真實、身分安定及子女利益之原則之外,並能增進親屬編親子關係法制上的完整性。

英文關鍵詞: assisted reproductionparentageembryoMater semper certa estPater est quem nuptiae demonstrantlegitimate childpresumption of legitimacydisavowal of the legitimacy presumptionsanguinity
英文摘要: The advance in reproductive medicine made it possible for many infertile spouses to have the chance to breed their "own" children. Nevertheless, the application of assisted reproductive technique hereinto also created discrepancy between sanguinity and parenthood by applying gametes other than the spouses', which therefore overthrew the traditional family concept and challenged the principle of our Civil Code. Consequently as supplement, the Artificial Reproduction Act was promulgated on March 21, 2007 for the purpose maintaining social ethics, and protecting the rights and interests of infertile spouses, children conceived through artificial reproduction, and donors.
The nowadays arising real-life cases caused either by negligent fertilization with wrong gamete cells or through illegal procedure have fled far beyond the legislator's then imagination. In abovementioned circumstances, an astonishing and debating conclusion will be drawn about the parenthood if the contemporary Artificial Reproduction Act and Civil Code were applied. The unconsidered inconsistencies in the parenthood exhibited herein will urge us to a critical and integrated review on these regulations.
The core doctrine “Mater semper certa est” i.e., legitimating motherhood by the fact of delivery, served to build up the traditional parenthood in our family laws of Civil Code, has been bitterly challenged by the modern assisted reproductive technique through simply introducing gametes other than the mother-to-be's and thus inventing the discrepancy between the gestation and the
sanguinity. In as much as the fact that “women delivering children” could no longer assure the genuine maternal sanguinity, this article asserts that the children delivered should be "presumed" to be legitimate not only on paternal side, as already stipulated, but also on maternal side, either of which should be allowed to be disavowed if proved otherwise. In response, this article carefully and deliberately attempts to amend all the relevant provisions in Artificial Reproduction Act and Civil Code regarding the parenthood with special emphasis on the integration in between.
Hopefully this endeavor will successfully dodge the troublesome parenthood disputes and controversies regarding the assisted reproductive minority without disturbing the naturally conceived majority, and will keep in complete accord with the constitutional principles as held in J.Y. Interpretations No. 587 to balance the maintenance of a stable family status order and the protection of a child's interests.


目  次: 壹、前言
貳、人工生殖法之檢討與修法建議
一、人工生殖法中親子血親之建構
(一)「夫同意」、「妻同意」之性質與作用
(二)特殊之血親性格
二、法條用語欠妥之處
(一)「視為」婚生子女之規定有待斟酌
(二)「受胎」之定義混淆不清
(三)修法建議
三、規範上之漏洞
(一)未規定不合法人工生殖子女之親子關係
(二)未規定因操作錯誤而生人工生殖子女之親子關係
(三)未妥善規範精卵捐贈者之親子地位
(四)未妥善規範非捐贈者精卵被他用時之親子地位
參、民法親屬編之檢討與修法建議一、現行法親子關係之認定原則
(一)先以「分娩外觀」成立「母子關係」
(二)以「婚姻關係」推定「父子關係」
(三)容許以婚生否認、準正、與認領確定「父子關係」
(四)小結
二、親子關係認定原則之檢討
(一)「生母恆定原則」之先在性「事實」
(二)血統事實與分娩事實之割裂
三、親子關係認定困境之突破
(一)正視母與子女關係上之血統真實性
(二)妥適解釋現行法上婚生推定與否認
(三)增列生母認領之規定
(四)增列「婚生關係全否認限制」條文
(五)統合非於婚姻關係存續中所生子女之法律地位
(六)小結一身分安定及子女利益之檢驗
肆、設例與問題之解析
一、設例與問題之提出
二、解析
(一)設例一
(二)設例二
伍、結論
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