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論著名稱: 論契約成立生效後之締約上過失責任:以不實表述之責任為中心(Culpa in Contrahendo Liability After the Formation of Contract: Focusingon Misrepresentation)
編著譯者: 陳聰富
出版日期: 2021.03
刊登出處: 台灣/國立臺灣大學法學論叢第 50 卷 第 1 期 /213-264 頁
頁  數: 52 點閱次數: 939
下載點數: 208 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 國立臺灣大學法律學院
關 鍵 詞: 締約上過失說明義務資訊揭露義務不實表述信賴利益違約責任契約解消歐洲契約法
中文摘要: 依民法第 245 條之 1 第 1 項第 1 款規定,締約人僅就「締約有重要關係之事項」負有說明義務,且其違法行為必須以對方曾經詢問,加害人惡意隱匿或為不實之說明為構成要件。又本條規定具有「契約未成立」之要件,對於締約人違反說明義務,致訂立不利他人契約之案件,是否適用,顯有疑問。
對於締約人不實陳述,致訂立不利於他方之契約,德國法除錯誤法則及詐欺法則之外,就過失不實表述之案件,認為加害人應負締約上過失責任。英國法就詐欺與不實表述採取統一規範,被害人得主張撤銷契約,並請求賠償損害。
本文藉由比較法方式,檢討我國民法第 245 條之 1 第 1 項第 1 款之規定。本文指出,依本條款之規定,締約人之說明義務,限於「經他方詢問」之事項,並未承認締約人之一般性的說明義務。又「就訂約有重要關係之事項」,應參酌各國法制,就個案認定之。為完善保護被害人之權益,避免法律規範漏洞,本條款規定,不應限於「契約未成立」,始得適用,而應擴張解釋,涵蓋當事人違反說明義務致訂立不利他人契約之案件。至於契約成立後,所成立之締約上過失責任,是否僅構成違約責任,本文認為締約上過失責任與不完全給付責任,規範對象不同,二者併存而具有各自功能。
英文關鍵詞: culpa in contrahendoduty of informationduty of disclosuremisrepresentationreliance damagesliability for breach of contracttermination of contractEuropean contract law
英文摘要: The culpa in contrahendogoverned by Subparagraph 1, Paragraph 1, Article 245-1 of Taiwan Civil Code stipulates that a negotiator is liable for deliberately not disclosinginformation or givingincorrect information where the information is significant and the informer is requested to disclose such information. Although this article provides a negotiator with a duty of information, it is restricted to be applied to the negotiation that does not lead to conclusion of a contract in the end. As such, it is disputable as to whether the culpa in contrahendostipulated in this article is applicable to the case where a contract has been entered even if a negotiator breached its duty ofinformation.
The culpa in contrahendois applicable to the case where a contract was concluded with negligent misrepresentation under German law, as long as such contract is harmful to the non-informed party, who is entitled to claim reliance damages. In English law, the Misrepresentation Act is enacted to govern fraud, negligent and non-negligent misrepresentation, and empowers the victim to rescind a contract and to claim damages.
This paper is aimed to examine Subparagraph 1, Paragraph 1, Article 245-1 of Taiwan Civil Code in terms of its legislative purpose and its application. It is indicated herein that this article does not recognize a general principle of duty of information since only those information requested by the victim is subject todisclosure. Although this article restricts itsapplication to the case where a contract is not concluded in the end, it should have been interpreted to governthe case where a contract is concluded with negligent misrepresentation. It is arguable that culpa in contrahendoshould not be eliminated by the liability of non-performance in some cases.
目  次: 壹、序言
貳、基本原則
一、締約資訊自行承擔風險原則
二、我國法上說明義務之疑問
參、說明義務之違反
一、英美法
二、法國法
三、德國法
四、歐洲契約法
肆、英國法之不實表述(misrepresentation)法則
一、統一的不實表述法則
二、案例說明
伍、德國法之締約上過失法則
一、故意欺瞞案件
二、過失不實表述案件
陸、救濟方法
一、英國法
二、德國法
三、歐洲契約法
柒、我國法之檢討
一、民法第 245 條之 1 第 1 項第 1 款之構成要件
二、救濟方法
三、締約上過失責任與違約責任
捌、結語
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