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論著名稱: 不准入境是在保護誰?論新冠肺炎疫情下實施邊境管制的兩難(No Entry for the Sake of Whom?The Dilemma of Imposing Border Control under the COVID-19 Pandemic)
編著譯者: 洪國華
出版日期: 2021.04
刊登出處: 台灣/月旦醫事法報告第 54 期 /38-48 頁
頁  數: 11 點閱次數: 713
關 鍵 詞: 比例原則秋冬防疫專案授權明確性憲法遷徙自由基本權嚴重特殊傳染性肺炎
中文摘要: 新冠肺炎疫情下,臺灣近日實施秋冬防疫專案,拒絕無陰性檢測報告的有戶籍國民入境,有侵害人民原本受憲法保障的基本權的可能,亦與過往大法官解釋、公民政治及權利公約等相違。本文探討衛生福利部實施此專案之違憲疑義之餘,亦將討論防疫資源與政治因素的現實下,政府兼顧防疫與人權之兩難。
英文關鍵詞: principle of proportionalityfall-winter covid-19 prevention programprinciple of the explicit delegationconstitutional fundamental rightssevere pneumonia with novel pathogens
英文摘要: Owing to the COVID-19 Pandemic, Taiwan has implemented the Fall-Winter COVID-19 Prevention Program, under which nationals with registered household in Taiwan without COVID-19 RT-PCR test report will be prohibited from entry. It is likely to violate the constitutional guarantee of fundamental rights, and contravene past Judicial Yuan Interpretations and International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. This article explores the constitutionality of the Program announced by Ministry of Health and Welfare, and discuss the government's dilemma between attending simultaneously to epidemic prevention and human rights protection, meeting the reality of disease control resources and political reasons.
目  次: 壹、引言
貳、現行法律有無明文授權衛福部得限制有戶籍國民入境
一、邊境管制或限制人流往來有助於防治傳染病
二、衛福部無權直接禁止民眾入境
三、釋字第 558 號僅允許政府差別對待無戶籍之國民
四、對有戶籍國民,衛福部僅得實施入境後之檢疫措施
參、秋冬防疫專案符合憲法「授權明確性」原則嗎?
一、限制人民入出境,應有法律或法律明確授權的法規命令
二、傳染病防治法第 58 條第 1 項第 4 款不符合授權明確性原則
肆、結語:防疫有效性與實質合憲性的兩難
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