法學期刊
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論著名稱: 自甘冒險與運動傷害(The Assumption of Risk and Sports Injury)
編著譯者: 陳聰富
出版日期: 2010.03
刊登出處: 台灣/臺北大學法學論叢第 73 期 /141-184 頁
頁  數: 44 點閱次數: 163
下載點數: 176 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 陳聰富
關 鍵 詞: 自甘冒險運動傷害違法性過失責任理論固有風險理論球迷觀眾傷害運動比賽參與者運動教練之責任
中文摘要: 自甘冒險理論為英美法的古老原則,經過百年的發展,自甘冒險理論是否仍有存在之必要,在美國法上引發許多爭議。在我國法的討論上,應探究者為,自甘冒險理論在我國侵權行為法具有何種意義。對於被害人的自甘冒險行為,是加害人行為不具違法性或未違反注意義務?此外,運動活動不免發生傷害,運動活動參與者是否均因自甘冒險,而不得向加害人請求賠償?運動活動參與者的注意義務程度,是否與一般傷害案件相同?均為本文所擬討論之問題。本文指出,自甘冒險理論在美國法上區分為明示的自甘冒險、主要的默示自甘冒險及次要的默示自甘冒險等三種類型。在美國實務運作上仍然繼續存在者為主要的自甘冒險理論,認為在被害人自甘冒險之範圍內,加害人對被害人無注意義務,或未違反注意義務,而無賠償責任。在我國法制上,應認為在被害人自甘冒險時,被害人係對損害之發生具有默示承諾,而阻卻加害人行為之違法性。關於運動傷害案件,若被害人之傷害屬於運動活動中固有風險所生之損害,可認為被害人默示承諾自我承擔系爭活動之固有風險,而阻卻被告行為之違法性。此時,即無需探討被告行為是否具有過失。若被害人之損害超越運動活動中固有風險之範圍,則非屬被告默示承諾願意承擔之危險,而無阻卻違法之效果。此時,應進一步檢討被告行為是否違反注意義務而具有過失。
英文關鍵詞: Assumption of RiskSports InjuryWrongfulnessNegligence LiabilityInherent Risk DoctrineSport Fan and Spectator InjurySport ParticipantsSport Coach Liability
英文摘要: The assumption of risk doctrine is an old rule under Anglo-American law, and has developed for hundreds of years, which raises an issue as to whether it is still needed for the legal system nowadays. What should be explored for this doctrine under Taiwanese law is the role this doctrine should play under Taiwanese legal system. In more detail, it should be examined whether it is an issue of wrongfulness or of fault when the victim assumes a specific risk of an activity. Further, the sport activity often causes injury to the participants. This issue is whether the victim is barred from a cause of action toward the injurer merely because such activity is deemed to be a risk that should be taken by the victim under the doctrine of assumption of risk. In the meanwhile, it should further explore whether the injurer in a sport activity should take the same degree of duty of care as those involving in other activities. This article articulates that there are three types of assumption of risk under American law, which includes express assumption of risk, primary implied assumption of risk, and secondary implied assumption of risk. In practice, the injurer has no duty of care, or has no negligence under primary implied assumption of risk, which renders the injurer not liable for the injury. This doctrine should be viewed as " without wrongfulness " for the injury under Taiwanese law. With respect to sport activities, the injurer is not held liable as long as the injury is an inherent risk of such activities under the primary implied assumption of risk.
目  次: 壹、序言
貳、自甘冒險的類型與適用
一、明示的自甘冒險
二、次要的默示自甘冒險
三、主要的默示自甘冒險
四、自甘冒險理論在我國法之適用
參、自甘冒險與運動傷害
一、故意或魯莽行為理論(intentional-reckless doctrine)
二、固有風險理論(inherent risk doctrine)
三、一般過失責任理論
肆、運動傷害之責任判斷:違法性與過失責任
一、球迷觀眾
二、運動比賽參與者(球員、選手)
三、運動教練或訓練教師
伍、結語
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