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論著名稱:
刑事程序中的個資保護—德國刑事訴訟法第 8 編(§§474-499 StPO)逐條釋義
文獻引用
編著譯者: 林鈺雄
出版日期: 2019.10
刊登出處: 台灣/刑事政策與犯罪研究論文集第 22 期/201-233 頁
頁  數: 33 點閱次數: 514
下載點數: 132 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 林鈺雄
關 鍵 詞: 個人資料資訊自主權目的外使用電子卷證刑事程序
中文摘要: 基於憲法隱私權及資訊自主權之保障(司法院釋字第 603 號、第 689 號參照),使用出自刑事程序的個人資訊,應力求個人資訊保護與公共利益之平衡,尤其是「目的外使用」(指「非基於本案刑事程序目的之使用」,包含為其他刑事程序及為非刑事程序而使用所有情形),更應遵守憲法之界限。然我國《刑事訴訟法》中,幾乎未見個人資料如何處理及利用的相關規定;少數例外,如 2019 年 6 月 19 日公布之我國《刑事訴訟法》第 33 條第 4 項規定:「持有第一項及第二項卷宗及證物內容之人,不得就該內容為非正當目的之。」其餘規範可謂付之闕如。
德國聯邦憲法法院自戶口普查案(BVerfGE 65, 1: Volkszahlung)以來,即不斷重申「人民就其個人資料有免於受到國家無節制的取得、使用之權利,對此權利之限制,依照法律保留原則應有合乎憲法本旨的明確法律授權基礎,且尤其應該遵守比例原則之限制規範」。然德國《刑事訴訟法》(StPO),原本並無個人資料的目的外使用之特別規定。1994 年因設立「跨邦檢察機關程序登記資料庫」(ZStV)之需求,為符合憲法誡命,遂新增第 8 編(也是 StPO 的最後一編)規定,作為資訊干預之授權基礎。2000 年又進一步增訂「提供答覆及查閱案卷、逾越程序目的將資訊移作他用」及「資料規則」兩章規定。2017 年隨同電子卷證增訂第 8 編第 4 章的「電子卷證個人資料之保護與運用」(第 496 條至第 499 條),自 2018 年 1 月 1 日起生效。以上他山之石,國內仍無文獻引介;下文寫作以德國註釋書為文體典範,就德國《刑事訴訟法》第8 編(編名:「個人資料的保護與使用」)的第 1 章至第 4 章規定(§§ 474-499 StPO),逐條釋義,期能拋磚引玉,引起國內學界及實務對刑事程序中個資保護問題的重視。
英文關鍵詞: personal datainformation autonomyuse beyond purposeelectronic dossier and evidencecriminal procedure
英文摘要: According to the protection of privacy and information autonomy by the Constitution (refer to Judicial Yuan Interpretation No. 603 and No. 689), the use of personal data from criminal procedures should aim to reach a balance between personal data protection and public interests, especially when it comes to ?use beyond the purpose? (refers to ?the use in non-criminal procedure in this case?, including the use in other criminal cases and the use in non-criminal procedures), it shall also comply to the constitutional boundaries. However, there is nearly no provisions about the process and use of personal data in the Code of Criminal Procedure; aside from few exception such as article 33 paragraph 4 in the Code of Criminal Procedure stipulates “people who possess dossier and evidence regulated in paragraph 1 and 2 are prohibited from improper use.”, there is nearly no legal norms regulating the relevant issues.
Since the German Federal Constitutional Court’s case (BVerfGE 65, 1: Volkszahlung), it has repeatedly reaffirmed that “the people shall have the right to refrain from the state to obtain and use their personal data unrestrainedly, according to the Principle of Legal Reservation, the limitation of this right shall have an explicit act authorized by the law, and in particular shall comply with the restrictions of the Principle of Proportionality.? However, the German Criminal Procedure Law (StPO) had no special provisions for “the use beyond the purpose” of personal data. In 1994, due to the need to establish the "Inter- Federal Prosecutor Procedural Register Database" (ZStV), the new 8th part (also the last part of StPO) was added in order to comply with the constitution, to serve as the legal authorization for data intervention.
In 2000, the provisions of the two chapters "Providing reply and access to the case file, using the data beyond procedural purposes" and "Information Rules" were further added. In 2017, chapter 4 of part 8 "Protection and Application of Personal Data in Electronic Dossier and Evidence" (§§ 496-499 StPO) was added and came into effect on January 1st 2018.
There are still no references in the literature to introduce these comparative legal norms in Taiwan; the following is written as the form of German Commentary, explaining section to section from the first to the forth chapter (§§ 474-499 StPO) of the 8th part (title: "Protection and Use of Personal Data") of German Criminal Procedure Law, with the expectation to stipulate attentions to data protection in criminal procedure in domestic academia and the field of legal practice.
目  次: 第 8 編  個人資料的保護與使用
  第 1 章  提供答覆及查閱案卷、逾越程序目的將資訊移作他用
  第 2 章  資料規則
  第 3 章  跨邦檢察機關程序登記資料庫
  第 4 章  電子卷證之個人資料的保護與使用
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相關論著:
林鈺雄,刑事程序中的個資保護—德國刑事訴訟法第 8 編(§§474-499 StPO)逐條釋義,刑事政策與犯罪研究論文集,第 22 期,201-233 頁,2019年10月。
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