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論著名稱: 從國際法觀點分析國際民航組織 CORSIA 計畫對臺灣民用航空業碳排放管制活動之影響(Reviewing the Influences Causes by Implementing the ICAO CORSIA on the Emission Reduction of Taiwan’ Civil Aviation Industry from International Law Perspective)
編著譯者: 蘇義淵
出版日期: 2019.12
刊登出處: 台灣/科技法學論叢第 15 期 /141-184 頁
頁  數: 29 點閱次數: 138
下載點數: 116 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 蘇義淵
關 鍵 詞: 溫室氣體民用航空器國際民用航空組織巴黎協議CORSIA 計畫國際航空運輸協會抵換額度
中文摘要: 在國際貨物與人員移動過程中,航空器是最迅速、便捷的工具之一,也是近年來最蓬勃發展的產業。然因航空器的燃料多為化石燃料,無論是貨物或是客運運輸,在飛行過程中會產生許多溫室氣體排放。雖然國際航空業並不是最主要的溫室氣體排放源,但因飛行路徑大多跨越各國領空,或者是在國際空域之間飛行,因此要管制航空器的溫室氣體排放量就不得不透過國際組織加以協調,協同各國的努力以達有效的管制效果。國際民用航空組織自 2007 年開始針對各會員國的國籍民用航空器的二氧化碳排放行為加以管制,並在 2016 年推行 CORSIA 計畫,令各會員國在特定期間之內計算所屬國籍之航空器排放總量,並且可以向非航空業者購買適當、符合標準的計畫型溫室氣體減量額度,以便與所屬之航空器的排放量相抵減,達到碳中和增長的目標。本文介紹、分析國際民用航空組織採取因應氣候變遷、管制溫室氣體活動等措施之法源依據,並進一步的解釋 CORSIA 計畫之內容、標準,以便瞭解 ICAO 預定採用的措施。因 CORSIA 計畫允許各締約方採購非航空業者所實施的減碳活動額度,而相關額度的產生、應用與聯合國氣候變化綱要公約、巴黎協議的規定有所連動,加諸巴黎協議亦有創造有別於京都彈性機制的減緩措施,但限於規範的內容不足或不明確,致使到目前為止都難以判斷 CORSIA 計畫可否引用巴黎協議的強制型或自願型的減量活動。因此,本文乃分析 CORSIA 計畫與巴黎協議之內容,並建議我國政府應該積極關注其發展。再者,因為我國的民用航空主管機關與環保機關都沒有將民用航空業列入溫室氣體排放之管制標的,現行法規之中對於航空器的排放量、溫室氣體管制措施等也完全沒有著墨。因此,為了可以有效地參與國際溫室氣體減量活動,有效地參加國際組織活動,建議政府應提早準備與航空業合作,實施航空器與機場的溫室氣體排放統計與計算,進而製作國家報告。本文更發現因為我國航空業者有參與國際航空運輸協會之故,而使我國有機會可以正式參與 ICAO 的 CORSIA 計畫,而得引此正式申請參加 ICAO 會員活動的機會,因此建議我國政府應密切關注相關國際法規的動態,研擬參加的策略,使我國可以使用正式名稱參與國際減量活動,並可以達到開創新產業、環境保護與減緩氣候變遷之目的。
英文關鍵詞: Greenhouse GasesCivil Aviation CraftsInternational Civil Aviation OrganizationICAOParis AgreementCORSIAInternational Aviation Transportation AssociationIATAOffsetsCredits
英文摘要: Aircraft is the most convenient transportation vehicle among the international trade and civilian moving, the aviation industry is also the most rapid development industry sector in recent years. The usage of fossil fuel on the aircraft causes tremendous greenhouse gas emission and accumulation in the atmosphere. Although the aviation industry is not the major GHGs emission resource in the world, the flight routes always cross the borders of nations and make it difficult to calculate individual’s emission reduction duty. It is necessary for the international agency to collaborate all reduction efforts from the States to reach real and useful reduction results. The International Civil Aviation Organization started the CO2 emission control from the aircraft of its member States. The CORSIA was adopted in 2016 and requires all member States to calculate total greenhouse gases emission amounts from the registered aircrafts within specific period of years. The controlled aviation sectors are allowed to purchase the qualified emission reduction credits from the project initiated by the non-aviation sectors in other member States. The procured reduction credits could offsets the total emission amounts from the registered aircrafts and reach the carbon neutral growth purpose.
This article introduce and analyze the legal authorities sources of the ICAO to deal with climate change and measures to limit emission of greenhouse gases. The understanding of the CORSIA contains is also an important method to realize measures to be taken by the ICAO. The implementation of CORSIA shall have close reaction between UNFCCC and Paris Agreement since the reduction credits from the related mechanisms could be adopted by CORSIA, especially the Paris Agreement created the uncertain sustainable development mechanism without further explanation from the Conference of the Parties serving as Meeting of the Paris Agreement (CMP). Therefore, this article suggests the government shall pay a close attention on the development of the Paris Agreement. Second, the current regulations on the civilian aviation in Taiwan neither have any requirement on the aviation sectors nor the measures or activities on the GHGs emission reduction. In order to reach real GHGs reductions and participate international GHG reduction activities, this article suggests the government shall work with aviation sectors to adopt proper methodologies and calculate CO2 emissions from aircrafts. It would allow the government to prepare and produce nation report to the ICAO. This article also found the opportunities to participate ICAO since Taiwan’s private aviation companies are members of the IATA, and IATA agreed its members to adopt CORSIA and reduce GHGs emission from aero-cargo transportation. It makes Taiwan an opportunities to apply participation of ICAO since the implementation obligations from the IATA. It also makes Taiwan’s government an opportunity to avoid interference from “one China Policy” and use our own name to join the ICAO, because of the implementation of the CORSIA. The participations on the CORSIA helps Taiwan to create innovative job opportunities and protect its nature environment.
目  次: 壹、前言
貳、形成管制方式之歷程
 一、ICAO 管制溫室氣體的法源依據
 二、ICAO 管制溫室氣體的歷年決議
參、CORSIA 計畫之內容
 一、CORSIA 計畫的期程
 二、CORSIA 計畫的 MRV 原則
 三、排放單位標準(Emission Unit Criteria, EUC)
 四、小結
肆、CORSIA 計畫與巴黎協議之關係
 一、巴黎協議第 6.4 條之永續發展機制
 二、巴黎協議第 6.2 條國際減量成果交易之規定
伍、IATA 的氣候變遷政策
陸、我國管制航空器溫室氣體排放之現況
柒、結論
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