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論著名稱: COVID-19 疫情防治與刑法(COVID-19 Control and Criminal Law)
編著譯者: 蔡聖偉
出版日期: 2021.11
刊登出處: 台灣/國立臺灣大學法學論叢第 50 卷 特刊/1167-1237 頁
頁  數: 71 點閱次數: 807
下載點數: 284 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 蔡聖偉
關 鍵 詞: 新冠病毒新冠肺炎傳染病傳染病防治法嚴重特殊傳染性肺炎防治及紓困振興特別條例空白刑法重傷害刑法第192條
中文摘要: 2019 年底所爆發的新冠肺炎疫情,幾乎讓全世界暫時停止呼吸,同時誘發了許多違法行為,也把那些與傳染病防治相關的法規範推上了舞台。《刑法》中與傳染病防治直接相關者,當屬第 192 條。其次,由於感染疾病是對身體健康狀態的不利影響,因此將疾病傳染給他人自然也有構成傷害罪(甚或殺人罪)的可能;但在疫情失控時,往往難以確認因果關係,便使得這些結果犯的效用大打折扣。此外,《傳染病防治法》第 62 條與《嚴重特殊傳染性肺炎防治及紓困振興特別條例》第 13 條亦針對病毒傳染的防治設有刑罰制裁規範,這些關於預防傳染病散布的構成要件都採用了行政從屬的空白立法模式,因此有不少關於法律適用的環節必須釐清。由於這些規範都是各別獨立制定,彼此間無論是在構成要件的設計(如行為犯/結果犯模式的選擇、行政從屬的立法等)還是刑度的安排上,都有相互衝突、扞格之處,亟需全面檢視、整合。在臺灣,關於傳染病防疫的法制一直以來都沒有受到應有的重視,值此疫情或許正是全面檢視、修補的好時機。本文除了對各罪名的構成要件提出分析、闡釋外,也引介、參考了德國、奧地利及瑞士的相關立法例,據以探究何種立法模式較能勝任傳染病防治的任務,最後提出未來修法的建議。
英文關鍵詞: CoronavirusCOVID-19infectious diseaseCommunicable Disease Control ActSpecial Act for PreventionRelief and Revitalization Measures for Severe Pneumonia with Novel Pathogensblank form statute (Blankettgesetz)serious physical injuryArticle 192 of the criminal law
英文摘要: The outbreak of the corona-pandemic in the end of 2019 (COVID-19) has almost stopped the world from breathing. The epidemic has brought out many illegal issues, and has also put the laws related to the prevention and control of infectious disease on the stage. In the "Criminal Law", Article 192 is directly related to the prevention and control of infectious diseases. Infection with diseases also has an adverse effect on physical health. Therefore, spreading diseases to others may also constitute a crime of injury (or even homicide) in the criminal law. However, when the epidemic is out of control, the causality is relatively difficult to prove, which greatly reduces the effectiveness of these consequences. In the "Communicable Disease Control Act" and the "Special Act for Prevention, Relief and Revitalization Measures for Severe Pneumonia with Novel Pathogens", there are also penalties for the prevention and treatment of viral infections. Most of these regulations on preventing the spread of infectious diseases have adopted a blank legislative model (Blankettstrafgesetzen bzw. -tatbestand) of administrative subordination (Verwaltungsakzessoriet?t). Therefore, in the interpretation of objective and subjective elements, many related links need to be clarified. Since these norms are formulated separately, there are conflicts in the design of the constituent elements (the choice between behavioral offense and consequence offense, administrative subordination legislation, etc.) and the arrangement of penalties, which require comprehensive inspection. In Taiwan, the law on the prevention of infectious diseases has not received the attention it deserves. Taking advantage of this epidemic, it may be a good time for a comprehensive inspection and revision. In addition to analyzing the constituent elements of each crime, this article also introduces relevant norms in Germany, Austria and Switzerland, explores which legislative model is better for the task of preventing and controlling infectious diseases, and finally makes suggestions on ameding the law in the future.
目  次: 壹、前言
貳、侵害他人身體健康或生命法益的犯罪
一、傷害罪章
二、殺人罪章
參、《傳染病防治法》第 62 條
一、客觀構成要件
二、主觀構成要件
肆、《嚴重特殊傳染性肺炎防治及紓困振興特別條例》第 13 條
伍、公共危險罪章
一、違反傳染病檢查進口法令罪(第 192 條第 1 項)
二、散布傳染病菌罪(第 192 條第 2 項)
陸、立法層次的討論
一、立法例介紹
二、現行法的檢討
三、修法建議
柒、結語
相關法條:
相關判解:
相關函釋:
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