法學期刊
  • 社群分享
論著名稱: 開放國家及其憲法解釋(An Open State and the Explanation of Its Constitution)
編著譯者: 林依仁
出版日期: 2021.12
刊登出處: 台灣/政大法學評論第 167 期 /77-170 頁
頁  數: 61 點閱次數: 250
下載點數: 244 點 銷售明細: 權利金查詢 變更售價
授 權 者: 林依仁
關 鍵 詞: 國家開放性尊重條約原則友善國際法原則克減規則體系解釋
中文摘要: 本文探討公約適用與內國法間關係的憲法爭議。按國際公約經施行法轉換後,肇致二以上法規範同在、產生規範衝突。釋憲者即應處理規範位階之定序工作、現有法令與公約內容衝突,與適用複數法規之疑義。
我國憲法為規範國家在國際交往活動,特於第 141 條預設融合條款。此一憲法尊重條約原則,蘊含類似德國友善條約原則,體現出憲法之固定與開放性。公約施行法為一特殊的繼受決定,表徵接納國際人權秩序,經此規範增補衍生之適用爭議,亦屬憲法法庭的闡明任務。本文從訴訟類型著手,析論公約相涉之基本權解釋問題,復涉因法定參照義務,而生是否與如何參照的法令適用憲法爭議。前者應側重有無依循憲法尊重原則而未恣意。至於後者,特別是體系解釋與法律續造兩種情況,應調和憲法尊重原則與依法審判與依法行政原則間關係。為此試舉三例分析。最後對我國釋憲權之行使提出若干觀點,俾兼顧公約遵守與維護主權。
英文關鍵詞: Openness of the StateThe Principle of Respect for TreatiesThe Principle of Friendliness to International LawDerogation RuleSystem InterpretationDrogrationsregelRangzuweisungGeltungszuweisung
英文摘要: This article aims to examine the dispute in the Constitution between convention application and domestic law-making and application. The dispute began after an international convention was converted following the enforcement of the “Act to Implement the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights” (the International Covenants Implementation Act), resulting in having more than two codes existing simultaneously, thus creating a conflict in domestic law codes. Hence, Constitutional interpreters should resolve the following issues: setting the ranking of the codes, conflict between the present Constitution and content of the conventions, and doubts of applying multiple codes.
To regulate the nation’s international exchange activity, the Constitution of Taiwan specifically presets a merging clause in Article 141. The principle of respect for treaties stipulated in the Constitution not only implies a profound meaning that is similar to Germany’s practical principle of friendliness but also embodies the principle’s fixity and openness. Being a special legal reception decision, the International Covenants Implementation Act signifies the nation’s acceptance of the international human rights order. And the disputes that arise from the addition and amendment of related codes should be clarified from the constitutional interpretation. From the angle of the possible litigation types, this article analyzes the interpretation problems of the basic rights involved in the convention.
When reference obligations are set by the Act to Implement the International Covenants, it is inevitable that doubt about whether it was referenced and how it was referenced arises. Regarding the question of whether the convention was referenced or not should focus on whether the principle of respect in the Constitution was followed arbitrarily or not arbitrarily. As for the matter of how it was referenced, mediation of the relationship between the principle of respect in the Constitution, trial by the legislature, and law-based administration should be emphasized, especially in the two situations of system approach and legal renewal. Three practical examples are provided for analysis in this study. Lastly, several points for deliberation are suggested regarding the exercise of Taiwan’s constitutional interpretation right, so as to ensure both adherence to conventions and protection of our sovereignty.
目  次: 壹、問題意識
一、憲法與國家的雙重開放性
二、國際人權法之影響
三、釋憲者的任務變遷
貳、憲法尊重條約原則
一、尊重條約原則之融合功能
二、德國友善國際法原則之參照
三、三種融合形式
四、繼受決定之法
(一)是否繼受之保留
(二)如何繼受之保留
五、繼受結果之法
(一)人權公約特性之認識
(二)適用規則之調整
(三)違憲審查基法之確認
參、尊重條約原則與憲法解釋
一、尊重條約作為意義變遷之媒介
二、尊重前之確認
三、作為解釋輔助之尊重方法
(一)法認識論意義的解釋輔助
(二)作為基本權之解釋輔助
(三)作為憲法原則之解釋輔助
肆、尊重條約原則與法令違憲審查
一、違反公約之法律違憲審查
二、授權明確性之審查
伍、尊重條約原則與法令適用違憲審查
一、法拘束性審查之意義
(一)違反公約之規範適用審查
(二)適用公約見解歧義之統一解釋
(三)參照公約義務與其範圍
二、是否參照之審查
(一)存有法律競合狀態
(二)無恣意適用公約之審查
(三)規範衝突規則之調整
三、如何參照之審查
(一)立法意旨究明之審查
(二)調和解釋之審查
(三)法律續造之審查
(四)憲法原則間之衝突
陸、結論:憲法國際化與公約憲法化
相關法條:
相關判解:
相關函釋:
    相關論著:
    返回功能列