法學期刊
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論著名稱:
美國社區矯正工作人員與組織系統之介紹(Introducing Community Correctional Staff and Its Organizational Systems in the U.S.)
文獻引用
編著譯者: 林順昌
出版日期: 2022.04
刊登出處: 台灣/刑事政策與犯罪防治研究專刊第 31 期/87-142 頁
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關 鍵 詞: 緩刑司法精神個案監管觀護系統司法改革
中文摘要: 綜觀美國社區矯正組織現況,包括私人經營的社區監督系統在內共有 5 大系統,而其中執行業務帶有強制拘束力的有 3 個:地方郡縣主辦的緩刑官系統、州矯正署主辦的假釋官系統、針對特殊罪犯處遇的衛生社福系統。目前全美假釋機構及緩刑機構合計 3,108 個,若將配合實施社區矯正的民間機構、衛生行政及社福行政機構合併計算,則有將近 4 千個社區矯正機關(構),連同例行性協助工作的志願服務者,整體人力超過 8 萬人。其體系之龐雜、系統結構之繁瑣,適如美國包納多元種族及多元文化的另一種體現。國人在借鏡美國社區矯正相關措施或組織模式時,通常忽略東西文化的差異,以及行政與司法框架的細節問題,尤其是衛生及社福系統在社區矯正的協作機制,因為是臺灣本土所沒有的機制,從而有想當然耳的推論。實則美國為精神病犯的司法精神住院治療、社區門診,設有社會復歸的轉銜機制,地區醫療衛生部門並配置相關人力協助從事特殊的社區矯正措施,其模式與臺灣迥異。緣此,本文爰以介紹彼邦組織制度為架構,附帶說明相關人員的功能及運作概況,俾提供有識者參考。
英文關鍵詞: ProbationForensic Case MonitorsPnP SystemJudicial Reform
英文摘要: Looking at the current situation about the organization of community corrections in the United States, there are five major systems, including privately run community monitoring systems. Three of them are mandatory for enforcement: the probation officer system sponsored by local counties, the parole officer system sponsored by the State Corrections Department, and the official system for special criminal treatment of both health and social welfare systems. At present, there are 3,108 parole institutions and probation institutions in the United States. If the private institutions, health administration, and social welfare administrative institutions that cooperate with the implementation of community corrections are combined, there will be nearly 4,000 community corrections institutions. The structure of this system is quite complex and cumbersome, just like other manifestations in the U.S., which embrace multi-racial and multi-cultural characteristics. While previous studies introduced to the U.S. community corrective measures or organizational models, they usually ignored the differences between Eastern and Western cultures, as well as the details of the administrative and judicial frameworks. Especially the coordination mechanisms on community corrections about both health and the social welfare systems have largely been overlooked. Some inferences can be taken for granted because that is not available in Taiwan. The U.S. has set up community corrective measures and staffing-related manpower for judicial mental hospitalization, outpatient community clinic, and social rehabilitation for mentally ill criminals. The treatment model of the U.S. is very different from Taiwanese. For this reason, this article is structured by introducing the organization system of community corrections in the United States, with a description of the functions and operations of the relevant personnel, to provide a reference to the knowledgeable.
目  次: 壹、前言
貳、美國社區矯正系統梗概
參、美國社區矯正工作者之聘用與任務
 一、社區矯正工作者的類型
 二、觀護人之取材及待遇
 三、榮譽觀護人之資格及工作
肆、美國社區矯正三大組織系統-以加州為例
 一、地方郡縣主辦的緩刑官組織系統
 二、州矯正署主辦的假釋官組織系統
 三、針對特殊罪犯協作社區矯正的衛生社福系統
伍、結語
相關法條:
相關判解:
相關函釋:
相關論著:
林順昌,美國社區矯正工作人員與組織系統之介紹,刑事政策與犯罪防治研究專刊,第 31 期,87-142 頁,2022年04月。
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